Eating and Weight Disorders

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp e242–e249 | Cite as

Prevalence of overweight and obesity in Thai population: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

  • N. Jitnarin
  • V. Kosulwat
  • N. Rojroongwasinkul
  • A. Boonpraderm
  • C. K. Haddock
  • W. S. C. Poston
Original Research Paper

ABSTRACT

Overweight and obesity are considered a serious health problem in Thailand. This study examined the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a nationally representative sample of Thai children and adults based on international standards. A cross-sectional population survey of 16,596 Thais aged 3 years and over was conducted. Heights and weights were obtained using standardized methods. Estimates of the overweight and obesity prevalence in children, adolescents, and adults were computed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents aged 3 to 18 years was 7.6% and 9.0%, respectively, and was higher among boys than girls. Among adults, using the the Regional Office for the Western Pacific (WPRO) standard, 17.1% of adults were classified as overweight [body mass index (BMI) 23.0–24.9 kg/m2], 19.0% as class I obesity (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2), and 4.8% as class II obesity (BMI≥30.0 kg/m2). Using the World Health Organization (WHO) definition, 19.0% were overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2), 4.0% class I obesity (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2), 0.8% class II obesity (BMI 35.0–39.9 kg/m2), and 0.1% class III obesity (BMI≥40.0 kg/m2). There was a vast difference in obesity prevalence between the WHO and the WPRO criteria. Obesity prevalence when using the WPRO definition (23.8%) was almost five times greater than when defined with the WHO standard (4.9%). The present study found a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in nationally representative sample of the Thai population. Higher rates of overweight and obesity prevalence were computed using the WPRO standard when compared to the WHO standard.

Key words

Children adolescents adults obesity overweight prevalence Thailand 

References

  1. 1.
    World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Western Pacific (WPRO), International Association for the Study of Obesity, International Obesity Task Force. The Asia-Pacific Perspective: Redefining obesity and its treatment. Sydney, Health Communications Australia Pty Ltd, 2000.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe. The challenge of obesity in the WHO European Region and the strategies for response. http://www.euro.who.int/document/nut/instanbul_conf_edoc06.pdf
  3. 3.
    Wang Y, Beydoun MA. The obesity epidemic in the United States — gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol Rev 2007; 29: 6–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Caballero B. The global epidemic of obesity: and overview. Epidemiol Rev 2007; 29: 1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wu Y. Overweight and obesity in China. BMJ 2006; 19: 362–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Adair LS. Dramatic rise in overweight and obesity in adult Filipino women and risk of hypertension. Obesity 2004; 12: 1335–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aekplakorn W, Hogan MC, Chongsuvivatwong V, et al. Trends in obesity and association with education and urban or rural residence in Thailand. Obesity 2007; 15: 3113–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html.
  9. 9.
    Kosulwat V. The nutrition and health transition in Thailand. Public Health Nutr 2002; 5: 183–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Popkin BM. The nutrition transition and its health implications in lower-income countries. Public Health Nutr 1998; 1: 5–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Popkin BM. Urbanization, lifestyle changes and the nutrition transition. World Dev 1999; 27: 1905–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ministry of Public Health, Bureau of Policy and Strategy. Thailand Health Profile, 2005–2007. Bangkok, Printing Press, the War Veterans Organization of Thailand, 2008.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Aekplakorn W, Mo-suwan L. National prevalence of obesity: prevalence of obesity in Thailand. Obes Rev 2009; 10: 589–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Whitlock EP, Williams SB, Gold R, et al. Screening and interventions for childhood overweight: a summary of evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics 2005; 116: 125–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    World Health Organization. Obesity: preventing and managing the global epidemic. Technical report (Report Series No. 894). Geneva, World Health Organization, 2000.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kosulwat V, Rojrungwasinkul N, Boonpraderm A, et al. Food consumption data of Thailand (in Thai). Bangkok, National Bureau of Agricultural Commodity and Food Standards, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 2006.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, et al. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 2000; 320: 1240–3.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Deurenberg P, Deurenberg-Yap M, Guricci S. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat percent relationship. Obes Rev 2002; 3: 141–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Low S, Chin MC, Ma, S, et al. Rationale for redefining obesity in Asians. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2009; 38: 66–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Langendijk G, Wellings S, van Wyk M, et al. The prevalence of childhood obesity in primary school children in urban Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2003; 12: 66–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mo-suwan L, Tongkumchum P, Puetpaiboon A. Determinants of overweight tracking from childhood to adolescence: a 5 y follow-up study of Hat Yai schoolchildren. Int J Obes RelatMetab Disord 2000; 24: 1642–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pawloski LR, Ruchiwit M, Pakapong Y. A cross-sectional examination of growth indicators from Thai adolescent girls: evidence of obesity among Thai youth. Ann Hum Biol 2008; 35: 378–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Georgiadis G, Nassis GP. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in a national representative sample of Greek children and adolescents. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007; 61: 1072–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hanley AJG, Harris SB, Gittelsohn J, et al. Overweight among children and adolescents in a Native Canadian community: prevalence and associated factors. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 693–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kasmini K, Idris MN, Fatimah A, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obese school children aged between 7 to 16 years amongst the major 3 ethnic groups in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 1997; 6: 172–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Savva SC, Kourides Y, Tornaritis M, et al. Obesity in children and adolescents in Cyprus. Prevalence and predisposing factors. Int J Obes 2002; 26: 1036–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Craven KL, Hawks SR. Cultural and western influences on the nutrition transition in Thailand. Promot Educ 2006; 13: 14–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jennings PS, Forbes D, McDermott B, et al. Eating disorder attitudes and psychopathology in Caucasian Australian, Asian Australian and Thai university students. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2003; 40: 143–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wen CP, Cheng TYD, Tsai SP, et al. Are Asians at greater mortality risks for being overweight than Caucasians? Redefining obesity for Asians. Public Health Nutr 2009; 12: 497–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shiwaku K, Anuurad E, Enkhmaa B, et al. Overweight Japanese with body mass indexes of 23.0–24.9 have higher risks for obesity-associated disorders: a comparison of Japanese and Mongolians. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28: 152–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999–2004. JAMA 2006; 295: 1549–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lin WY, Lee LT, Chen CY, et al. Optimal cut-off values for obesity: using simple anthropometric to predict cardiovascular risk factors in Taiwan. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26: 1232–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pan WH, Flegal KM, Chang HY, et al. Body mass index and obesity-related metabolic disorders in Taiwanese and US whites and blacks: implications for definitions of overweight and obesity for Asians. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 79: 31–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Norgan NG. Population differences in body composition in relation to the body mass index. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994; 48: S10–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tai ES, HO SC, Fok AC, et al. Measurement of obesity by anthropometry and bioelectric impedance analysis: correlation with fasting lipids and insulin resistance in an Asian population. Ann Acad Med Singapore 1999; 28: 445–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Deurenberg-Yap M, Schmidt G, van Staveren WA, et al. The paradox o flow body mass index an high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2000; 24: 1011–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dudeja V, Misra A, Pandey RM, et al. BMI does not accurately predict overweight in Asian Indians in northern India. Br J Nutr 2001; 86: 105–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Deurenberg-Yap M, Chew SK, Lin VFP, et al. Relationships between indices of obesity and its commorbidities in multi-ethnic Singapore. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25: 1554–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Deurenberg-Yap M, Chew SK, Deurenberg P. Elevated boy fat percentage and cardiovascular risks at low body mass index levels among Singaporean Chinese, Malays, and Indians. Obes Rev 2002; 3: 209–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Berghofer A, Pischon T, Reinhold T, et al. Obesity prevalence from a European perspective: a systematic review. BMC Public Health 2008; 8: 200–10.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chuprapawan C. Report of the First National Health Examination Survey in Thailand (in Thai). Nonthaburi, Ministry of Public Health, 1991.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chuprapawan C. Report of the Second National Health Examination Survey in Thailand (in Thai). Nonthaburi, Ministry of Public Health, 2000.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    James PT, Leach R, Kalamara E, et al. The worldwide obesity epidemic. Obesity 2001; 9 (suppl 4): 228–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Heinrich KM, Jitnarin N, Suminski RR, et al. Obesity classification in military personnel: A comparison of body fat, waist circumference, and body mass index measurements. Mil Med 2008; 173: 67–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Editrice Kurtis 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Jitnarin
    • 1
  • V. Kosulwat
    • 2
  • N. Rojroongwasinkul
    • 3
  • A. Boonpraderm
    • 3
  • C. K. Haddock
    • 4
  • W. S. C. Poston
    • 4
  1. 1.National Development and Research InstitutesPublic Health Solutions of NYCNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Mead Johnson Nutrition (Thailand) Ltd.Klongtoey, BangkokThailand
  3. 3.Institute of NutritionMahidol UniversityNakhonpathomThailand
  4. 4.Institute for Biobehavioral Health ResearchNational Development and Research InstitutesLeawoodUSA

Personalised recommendations