Advertisement

Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for river water

  • R. RezaEmail author
  • G. Singh
Article

Abstract

The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the river water quality with respect to heavy metals contamination. To get the extend of trace metals contamination, water samples were collected from twelve different locations along the course of the river and its tributaries on summer and the winter seasons. The concentrations of trace metals such as cadmium, cromium, copper, cobalt, iron, manganese, nickel, lead, mercury and zinc were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Most of the samples were found within limit of Indian drinking water standard (IS: 10500). The data generated were used to calculate the heavy metal pollution index of river water. The mean values of HPI were 36.19 in summer and 32.37 for winter seasons and these values are well below the critical index limit of 100 because of the sufficient flow in river system. Mercury and chromium could not be traced in any of the samples in the study area.

Keywords

Heavy metal pollution index Industrial pollution Seasonal variation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdel Satar, A. M., (2001). Environmental studies on the impact of the drains effluent upon the southern sector of Lake Manzalah. Egypt. J. Aquat. Biol. Fish, 5, 17–30 (14 pages).Google Scholar
  2. Adaikpoh, E. O.; Nwajei, G. E.; Ogala, J. E., (2005). Heavy metals concentrations in coal and sediments from river Ekulu in Enugu, Coal City of Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manag., 9(3), 5–8 (4 pages).Google Scholar
  3. Adams, R. H.; Guzman Osorio, F. J.; Zavala Cruz, J., (2008). Water repellency in oil contaminated sandy and clayey soils. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 5(4), 445–454 (10 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmad, M. K.; Islam, S.; Rahman, S.; Haque, M. R.; Islam, M. M., (2010). Heavy metals in water, sediment and some fishes of Buriganga River, Bangladesh. Int. J. Environ. Res., 4(2), 321–332 (12 pages).Google Scholar
  5. Akoto, O.; Bruce, T. N.; Darko, G., (2008). Heavy metals pollution profiles in streams serving the Owabi reservoir. African J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 2(11), 354–359 (6 pages).Google Scholar
  6. Aktar, M. W.; Paramasivam, M.; Ganguly, M.; Purkait, S.; Sengupta, D., (2010). Assessment and occurrence of various heavy metals in surface water of Ganga river around Kolkata: a study for toxicity and ecological impact. Environ. Monitor. Assess., 160(1–4), 207–213 (7 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ammann, A. A.; Michalke, B., Schramel, P., (2002). Speciation of heavy metals in environmental water by ion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS. Anal. Bioanal. Chem., 372(3), 448–452 (5 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. APHA, (1998) Standard methods for examination of water and waste water (20th. Ed.). Washington DC: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  9. Begum, A.; Ramaiah, M.; Khan, H. I.; Veena, K., (2009). Heavy metal pollution and chemical profile of Cauvery River Water. E-J. Chem., 6(1), 47–52 (6 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bem, H.; Gallorini, M.; Rizzio, E.; Krzemin, S. M., (2003). Comparative studies on the concentrations of some elements in the urban airparticulate matter in Lodz City of Poland and in Milan, Italy. Environ. Int., 29(4), 423–428 (6 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bird, G.; Brewer, P.; Macklin, M.; Balteanu, D.; Driga, B.; Serban, M.; Zaharia, S., (2003). The solid state partitioning of contaminant metals and As in river channel sediments of the mining affected Tisa drainage basin, northwestern Romania and eastern Hungary. Appl. Geochem., 18(10), 1583–1595 (13 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brian, S. C.; Bishop, M., (2009). Seasonal and spatial variation of metal loads from natural flows in the upper Tenmile Creek watershed, Montana. Mine Water Environ., 28(3), 166–181 (16 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chatterjee, S. K.; Bhattacharjee, I.; Chandra, G.; (2010). Water quality assessment near an industrial site of Damodar River, India. Environ. Monitor. Assess., 161(1–4), 177–189 (13 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. CravottaIII, A. C., (2008). Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA. Part 1: Constituent quantities and correlations. Appl. Geochem., 23(2), 166–202 (37 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gueu, S.; Yao, B.; Adouby, K.; Ado, G. (2007). Kinetics and thermodynamics study of lead adsorption on to activated carbons from coconut and seed hull of the palm tree. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech. 4(1), 11–17 (6 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hatje, V.; Bidone, E. D.; Maddock, J. L., (1998). Estimation of the natural and anthropogenic components of heavy metal fluxes in fresh water Sinos river, Rio Grande do Sul state, South Brazil. Environ. Tech., 19(5), 483–487 (5 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. IS 10500, (1993). Indian drinking water standards. Indian standard specifications for drinking water.Google Scholar
  18. Jain, C. K.; Sharma, M. K., (2006). Heavy metal transport in the Hindon river basin, India. Environ. Monitor. Assess., 112(1–3), 255–270 (16 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Juang, D. F.; Lee, C. H.; Hsueh, S. C., (2009). Chlorinated volatile organic compounds found near the water surface of heavily polluted rivers. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 6(4), 545–556 (12 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kar, D.; Sur, P.; Mandal, S. K.; Saha, T.; Kole, R. K., (2008). Assessment of heavy metal pollution in surface water., Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 5(1), 119–124 (6 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Karbassi, A. R.; Monavari, S. M.; Nabi Bidhendi, G. R.; Nouri, J.; Nematpour, K., (2008). Metal pollution assessment of sediment and water in the Shur River. Environ. Monitor. Assess., 147(1–3), 107–116 (12 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Karbassi, A. R.; Nouri, J.; Ayaz, G. O., (2007). Flocculation of trace metals during mixing of Talar river water with Caspian Seawater. Int. J. Environ. Res., 1(1), 66–73 (8 pages).Google Scholar
  23. Khadse, G. K.; Patni, P. M.; Kelkar, P. S.; Devotta, S., (2008). Qualitative evaluation of Kanhan river and its tributaries flowing over central Indian plateau. Environ. Monitor. Assess., 147(1–3), 83–92 (10 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Konhauser, K. O.; Powell, M. A.; Fyfe, W. S.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Tripathy, S., (1997). Trace element chemistry of major rivers in Orissa State, India. Environ. Geo., 29(1–2), 132–141 (10 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kraft, C.; Tumpling, W.; Zachmann, D.W.; (2006). The effects of mining in Northern Romania on the heavy metal distribution in sediments of the rivers Szamos and Tisza (Hungary). Acta Hidrochim. Hhydrobiol., 34, 257–264 (8 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee, C. L.; Li, X. D.; Zhang, G.; Li, J.; Ding, A. J.; Wang, T., (2007). Heavy metals and Pb isotopic composition of aerosols in urban and suburban areas of Hong Kong and Guangzhou, South China Evidence of the long-range transport of air contaminants. Environ. Pollut., 41(2), 432–447 (16 pages).Google Scholar
  27. Lohani, M. B.; Singh, S.; Rupainwar, D. C.; Dhar, D. N., (2008). Seasonal variations of heavy metal contamination in river Gomti of Lucknow city region. Environ. Monitor. Assess., 147(1–3), 253–263 (11 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Macklin, M. G.; Brewer, P. A.; Balteanu, D.; Coulthard, T. J.; Driga, B.; Howard, A. J.; Zaharia, S., (2003). The long term fate and environmental significance of contaminant metals released by the January and March 2000 mining tailings dam failure in Maramures County, upper Tisa basin, Romania. Appl. Geochem., 18(2), 241–257 (17 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mohan, S. V.; Nithila, P.; Reddy, S. J., (1996). Estimation of heavy metal in drinking water and development of heavy metal pollution index. J. Environ. Sci. Health A., 31(2), 283–289 (7 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mohanty, J. K.; Misra, S. K.; Nayak, B. B., (2001). Sequential leaching of trace elements in coal: A case study from Talcher coalfield, Orissa. J. Geo. Soc. India, 58, 441–447 (8 pages).Google Scholar
  31. Nayak, B. B.; Panda, U. C.; Panigrahy, P. K.; Acharya, B. C.; (2001). Dynamics of heavy metals in Dhamara Estuary of Orissa state in India. Chem. Environ. Res., 10(3–4), 203–218 (16 pages).Google Scholar
  32. Neal, C.; Jarvie, H. P.; Whitton, B. A.; Gemmell, J.; (2000). The water quality of the River Wear, north-east England. Sci. Total Environ., 251-252,153–172 (20 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A. H.; Babaei, A.; Ahmadpour, E., (2006). Regional pattern distribution of groundwater fluoride in the Shush aquifer of Khuzestan County Iran Fluoride. Fluoride., 39(4), 321–325 (5 pages).Google Scholar
  34. Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A. H.; Jahed, G. R.; Babaei, A. A., (2008). Regional distribution pattern of groundwater heavy metals resulting from agricultural activities. Environ. Geo., 55(6), 1337–1343 (7 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Panda, U. C.; Sundaray, S. K.; Rath, P.; Nayak, B. B.; Bhatta, D., (2006). Application of factor and cluster analysis for characterization of river and esturine water system-A case study: Mahanadi River (India). J. Hydro., 331(3–4), 434–445 (12 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Pandey, J.; Shubhashish, K.; Pandey, R.; (2009). Metal contamination of Ganga River (India) as influenced by atmospheric deposition. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 83(2), 204–209 (6 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Phiri, O.; Mumba, P.; Moyo, B. H. Z.; Kadewa, W., (2005). Assessment of the impact of industrial effluents on water quality of receiving Rivers in urban areas of Malawi. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 2(3), 237–244 (8 pages).Google Scholar
  38. Prasad, B.; Kumari, S., (2008). Heavy metal pollution index of ground water of an abandoned open cast mine filled with fly ash: A case study. Mine Water Environ., 27(4), 265–267 (3 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Prasad, B.; Mondal, K. K., (2008). The impact of filling an abandoned opencast mine with fly ash on ground water quality: A case study. Mine Water Environ., 27(1), 40–45 (6 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Prasad, M. B. K.; Ramanathan, A. L.; Shrivastav, S. K.; Anshumali.; Rajinder, S., (2006). Metal fractionation studies in surfacial and core sediments in the Achankovil river basin in India. Environ. Monitor. Assess., 121(1–3), 77–102 (26 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rim-Rukeh, A.; Ikhifa, O. G.; Okokoyo, A. P., (2006). Effects of agricultural activities on the water quality of Orogodo River, Agbor Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 2(5), 256–259 (4 pages).Google Scholar
  42. Sekabira, K.; Oryem Origa, H.; Basamba, T. A.; Mutumba, G.; Kakudidi, E., (2010). Assessment of heavy metal pollution in the urban stream sediments and its tributaries. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 7(3), 435–446 (12 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Senapati, N. K.; Sahu, K. C., (1996). Heavy metal distribution in Subarnarekha river east coast of India. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 25(2), 109–114 (6 pages).Google Scholar
  44. Sene-Johansen, S., (1995). Strengthening of the state pollution control board, Orissa State. International Consultant Report, Norway.Google Scholar
  45. Shahtaheri, S. J.; Abdollahi, M.; Golbabaei, F.; Rahimi-Froushani, A.; Ghamari, F., (2008). Monitoring of mandelic acid as a biomarker of environmental and occupational exposures to styrene. Int. J. Environ. Res., 2(2), 169–176 (8 pages).Google Scholar
  46. Singh, K. P.; Mallik, A.; Mohan, D.; Sinha, S., (2004). Multivariate statistical techniques for the evalution of spatial and temporal variations in water quality of Gomti river (India): A case study. Water Res., 38(18), 3980–3992 (13 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Singh, A. K.; Mondal, G. C.; Kumar, S.; Singh, T. B.; Tewary, B. K.; Sinha, A., (2008). Major ion chemistry, weathering processes and water quality assessment in upper catchment of Damodar River basin, India. Environ. Geo., 54(4), 745–758 (13 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sundaray, S. K., (2009). Application of multivariate statistical techniques in hydro-geochemical studies-a case study: Brahmani-Koel River (India). Environ. Monitor. Assess., 164(1–4), 297–310 (14 pages).Google Scholar
  49. Sundaray, S. K.; Panda, U. C.; Nayak, B. B.; Bhatta, D., (2006). Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of spatial and temporal variation in water quality of Mahanadi river-estuarine system (India). A case study. Environ. Geochem. Health, 28(4), 317–330 (14 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Suthar, S.; Singh, S., (2008). Vermicomposting of domestic waste by using two epigeic earthworms (Perionyx excavatus and Perionyx sansibaricus). Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 5(1), 99–106 (8 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. USEPA, (1997). National Hardrock Mining Framework, EPA., 833-B-97-003Google Scholar
  52. Venugopal, T.; Giridharan, L.; Jayaprakash, M.; Velmurugan, P.M., (2009a). A comprehensive geochemical evaluation of the water quality of River Adyar, India. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 82(2), 211–217 (7 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Venugopal, T.; Giridharan, L.; Jayaprakash, M., (2009b). Characterization and risk assessment studies of bed sediments of River Adyar-An application of speciation study. Int. J. Environ. Res., 3(4), 581–598 (18 pages).Google Scholar
  54. Vinodhini, R.; Narayanan, M., (2008). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (Common carp). Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 5(2), 179–182 (4 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wong, C. S. C.; Li, X. D.; Zhang, G.; Qi, S. H.; Peng, X. Z., (2003). Atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in the Pearl River Delta, China. Atmos. Environ., 37(6), 767–776 (10 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wu, Y. F.; Liu, C. Q.; Tu, C. L., (2008). Atmospheric deposition of metals in TSP of guiyang, PR China. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 80(5), 465–468 (4 pages).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringIndian School of MinesJharkhandIndia

Personalised recommendations