In the study, the relationship between some aquatic insect species (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera and Odonata) and some heavy metals (cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, nickel, iron and manganese) and boron were assessed using data obtained from the Ankara Stream, which flows through Ankara, the capital city of Turkey and receives high organic and industrial wastes. Sampling was carried out monthly along the Ankara Stream in 1991. environmental data were used to explain biological variation using multivariate techniques provided by the program canonical correspondence analysis ordination. The ordination method canonical correspondence analysis was applied to evaluate the relationships between environmental variables and distribution of aquatic insect larvae. Data sets were classified by two way indicator species analysis. In this study, aquatic insecta communities have been shown by canonical correspondence analysis ordination as related to total hardness, pH, cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, nickel, iron, manganese and boron. Cadmium, lead, copper and boron exceeded limits of the United States Environmental Protection Agency criteria for aquatic life. Trichopteran, Dinarthrum iranicum was an indicator of two way indicator species analysis and was placed close to the arrow representing copper. Odonate, Aeschna juncea was an indicator of two way indicator species analysis in site 10 and was placed close to the arrows representing manganese, lead, and nickel. Trichopteran, Cheumatopsyche lepida and odonate, Platycnemis pennipes were indicators of two way indicator species analysis for sites 6, 7, 11, 14, 15, 18 and were placed close to the arrows representing cadmium, boron, iron and total hardness.
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Girgin, S., Kazanci, N. & Dügel, M. Relationship between aquatic insects and heavy metals in an urban stream using multivariate techniques. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 653–664 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03326175
- Canonical correspondence analysis
- Metal pollution
- Two way indicator species analysis