Use of cereal fiber to facilitate adherence to a human caloric restriction program
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Background and aims: Caloric restriction (CR) attenuates biological aging in animal models but there is little information on the feasibility and efficacy of CR regimens in humans. We examined the effects of consuming an insoluble cereal fiber supplement on ability to sustain CR over 1 year in healthy overweight adults. Methods: In 34 healthy overweight women and men (BMI 25–30 kg/m2, age 20–42 yr), a 30% CR regimen meeting national recommendations for dietary fiber was provided for 24 weeks, and for an additional 24 weeks subjects were counseled to prepare the same regimen at home. During 5–10 weeks of CR, subjects were randomized to consume an extra 20 g/day of dietary fiber from a high fiber cereal (+F) or to not consume additional fiber (−F). After this time, all subjects were encouraged to consume the extra fiber. Outcomes included adherence to the provided and self-prepared CR regimens (energy intake determined using doubly labeled water), changes in body weight, and self-reported satisfaction with the amount of consumed food. Results: During 5–10 weeks of CR when all food was provided, both +F and −F groups were highly adherent to the CR regimen and there was no significant difference between groups in energy intake (p=0.51), weight change (p=0.96), or satisfaction with amount of provided food (p=0.08). During self-prepared CR from 25 to 48 weeks, mean adherence was lower than during the food-provided phase and there was a significant association between fiber intake and % CR (r=0.69, p<0.001), decreased BMI (r=− 0.38, p=0.04) and satisfaction with the amount of consumed food (r=0.59, p=0.002). Conclusions: A high fiber cereal intake may facilitate CR in humans self-selecting their own food; longer-term intervention studies are needed to confirm these findings.
KeywordsCaloric restriction dietary fiber dietary satisfaction weight loss
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