Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 20, Issue 6, pp 513–520 | Cite as

Use of cereal fiber to facilitate adherence to a human caloric restriction program

  • Cheryl H. Gilhooly
  • Sai Krupa Das
  • Julie K. Golden
  • Megan A. McCrory
  • James Rochon
  • James P. DeLany
  • Alicia M. Freed
  • Paul J. Fuss
  • Gerard E. Dallal
  • Edward Saltzman
  • Susan B. Roberts
Original Articles


Background and aims: Caloric restriction (CR) attenuates biological aging in animal models but there is little information on the feasibility and efficacy of CR regimens in humans. We examined the effects of consuming an insoluble cereal fiber supplement on ability to sustain CR over 1 year in healthy overweight adults. Methods: In 34 healthy overweight women and men (BMI 25–30 kg/m2, age 20–42 yr), a 30% CR regimen meeting national recommendations for dietary fiber was provided for 24 weeks, and for an additional 24 weeks subjects were counseled to prepare the same regimen at home. During 5–10 weeks of CR, subjects were randomized to consume an extra 20 g/day of dietary fiber from a high fiber cereal (+F) or to not consume additional fiber (−F). After this time, all subjects were encouraged to consume the extra fiber. Outcomes included adherence to the provided and self-prepared CR regimens (energy intake determined using doubly labeled water), changes in body weight, and self-reported satisfaction with the amount of consumed food. Results: During 5–10 weeks of CR when all food was provided, both +F and −F groups were highly adherent to the CR regimen and there was no significant difference between groups in energy intake (p=0.51), weight change (p=0.96), or satisfaction with amount of provided food (p=0.08). During self-prepared CR from 25 to 48 weeks, mean adherence was lower than during the food-provided phase and there was a significant association between fiber intake and % CR (r=0.69, p<0.001), decreased BMI (r=− 0.38, p=0.04) and satisfaction with the amount of consumed food (r=0.59, p=0.002). Conclusions: A high fiber cereal intake may facilitate CR in humans self-selecting their own food; longer-term intervention studies are needed to confirm these findings.


Caloric restriction dietary fiber dietary satisfaction weight loss 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Weindruch R, Sohal RS. Caloric Intake and Aging. N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 986–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roberts SB, Schoeller DA. Human caloric restriction for retardation of aging: current approaches and preliminary data. J Nutr 2007; 137: 1076–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Speakman JR, Hambley C. Starving for life — what animal studies can, and cannot, tell us about the use of caloric restriction to prolong human lifespan. J Nutr 2007; 137: 1078–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Howarth NC, Saltzman E, Roberts SB. Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutr Rev 2001; 59: 129–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Adam TCM, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. Glucagon-like peptide-1 and satiety after a nutrient challenge in normal weight and obese subjects. Br J Nutr 2005; 93: 845–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Burton-Freeman B, Davis PA, Schneeman BO. Plasma cholecystokinin is associated with subjective measures of satiety in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 659–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Delzenne NM, Cani PD, Daubioul C, Neyrinck AM. Impact of inulin and oligofructose on gastrointestinal peptides. Br J Nutr 2005; 93: S157–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baer DJ, Rumpler WV, Miles CW, Fahey GCJ. Dietary fiber decreases the metabolizable energy content and nutrient digestibility of mixed diets fed to humans. J Nutr 1997; 127: 579–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Vidgen E et al. A novel source of wheat fiber and protein: effects on fecal bulk and serum lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 1999; 69: 226–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Howarth NC, Saltzman E, McCrory MA et al. Fermentable and nonfermentable fiber supplements did not alter hunger, satiety or body weight in a pilot study of men and women consuming self-selected diets. J Nutr 2003; 133: 3141–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Maeda H, Yamamoto R, Hirao K, Tochikubo O. Effects of agar (kanten) diet on obese patients with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 2005; 7: 40–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Marett R, Slavin JL. No long-term benefits of supplementation with arabinogalactan on serum lipids and glucose. J Am Diet Assoc 2004; 104: 636–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wood RJ, Volek JS, Liu Y et al. Carbohydrate restriction alters lipoprotein metabolism by modifying VLDL, LDL, and HDL subfraction distribution and size in overweight men. J Nutr 2006; 136: 384–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sabovic M, Lavre S, Keber I. Supplementation of wheat fibre can improve risk profile in patients with dysmetabolic cardiovascular syndrome. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehab 2004; 11: 144–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Birketvedt GS, Aaset J, Florholmen JR, Ryttig K. Long-term effect of fibre supplement and reduced energy intake on body weight and blood lipids in overweight subjects. Acta Medica 2000; 43: 129–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Krotkiewski M. Use of fibres in different weight reduction programs. In Bjoerntorp P, Vahoung GV, Kritchevsky D, eds. Current Topics in Nutrition and Disease: Dietary fiber and obesity. New York: Alan R. Liss, Inc., 1985: 85–109.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Das SK, Gilhooly CH, Golden JK et al. Long-term effects of two energy-restricted diets differing in glycemic load on dietary adherence, body composition and metabolism in CALERIE, a one year randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2007; 85: 1023–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bathalon GP, Tucker KL, Hays NP et al. Psychological measures of eating behavior and the accuracy of 3 common dietary assessment methods in healthy postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 739–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saltzman E, Roberts SB. The role of energy expenditure in energy regulation: findings from a decade of research. Nutr Rev 1995; 53: 209–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schakel SF, Sievert YA, Buzzard IM. Sources of data for developing and maintaining a nutrient database. J Am Diet Assoc 1988; 88: 1268–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schakel SF. Procedures for estimating nutrient values for food composition databases. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 1997; 10: 102–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bingham S. The use of 24-h urine samples and energy expenditure to validate dietary assessments. Am J Clin Nutr 1994; 59: 227S–31S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goris AH, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Westerterp KR. Undereating and underrecording of habitual food intake in obese men: selective underreporting of fat intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 130–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). A Report of the Panel on Macronutrients, Subcommittees on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients and Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2005.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Liu S, Willett WC, Manson JE et al. Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 78: 920–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Koh-Banerjee P, Franz M, Sampson L et al. Changes in wholegrain, bran, and cereal fiber consumption in relation to 8-y weight gain among men. Am J Clin Nutr 2004; 80: 1237–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thompson WG, Rostad Holdman N, Janzow DJ et al. Effect of energy-reduced diets high in dairy products and fiber on weight loss in obese adults. Obes Res 2005; 13: 1344–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lanza E, Schatzkin A, Daston C et al. Implementation of a 4-y, high-fiber, high-fruit-and-vegetable, low-fat dietary intervention: results of dietary changes in the Polyp Prevention Trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2001; 74: 387–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thomas CA, Rock CL, Giuliano AR et al. Longitudinal changes in body weight and body composition among women previously treated for breast cancer consuming a high-vegetable, fruit and fiber low-fat diet. Eur J Nutr 2005; 44: 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pasman WJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Muls E et al. The effectiveness of long-term fibre supplementation on weight maintenance in weight-reduced women. Int J Obes 1997; 21: 548–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schoeller D. Measurement of energy expenditure in free-living humans by using doubly labeled water. J Nutr 1988; 118: 1278–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Eaton SB, Eaton III SB, Konner MJ. Paleolithic nutrition revisited: A twelve-year retrospective on its nature and implications. Eur J Nutr 1997; 51: 207–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Internal Publishing Switzerland 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheryl H. Gilhooly
    • 1
  • Sai Krupa Das
    • 1
  • Julie K. Golden
    • 2
  • Megan A. McCrory
    • 3
  • James Rochon
    • 4
  • James P. DeLany
    • 5
  • Alicia M. Freed
    • 1
  • Paul J. Fuss
    • 1
  • Gerard E. Dallal
    • 1
  • Edward Saltzman
    • 1
  • Susan B. Roberts
    • 1
  1. 1.Energy Metabolism Laboratory, Room 1312Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Food and Drug AdministrationSilver SpringUSA
  3. 3.Department of Foods and NutritionPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  4. 4.Duke Clinical Research InstituteDurhamUSA
  5. 5.University of Pittsburg Medical CollegePittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations