Advertisement

Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 194–199 | Cite as

Assessment of lower extremity muscle power in functionally-limited elders

  • Damien Callahan
  • Edward Phillips
  • Robert Carabello
  • Walter R. Frontera
  • Roger A. Fielding
Original Articles

Abstract

Background and aims: The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability and concurrent validity of a new methodology to evaluate lower extremity muscle power in older, functionally limited men and women. Methods: A cross sectional evaluation was performed on 58 older men (n=27) and women (n=31) (74.2±0.9 years). Knee and hip (leg press) and knee extensor power were evaluated on pneumatic and isokinetic resistance equipment. Incremental single attempt power (IP) testing utilized a s ingle attempt at attaining maximum power at each of six external resistances and was compared to multiple attempt pneumatic power (MP) testing determined by the highest of 5 attempts at achieving maximum power at two set resistances and also with power determined by isokinetic dynamometry. Results: Leg press extension MP yielded significantly greater power than IP at both low (mean=225.3±11.85 and 183.9±11.52 watts respectively, p<0.001) and high (mean=249.7±15.25 and 201.7±13.18 watts respectively, p<0.001) external resistances. Knee extension MP also produced significantly greater power when compared to IP at low (mean=82.4±4.45 and 69.7±4.28 watts respectively, p<0.001) and high (mean=93.7±6.3 and 83.2±5.93 watts respectively, p<0.001) external resistances. MP testing exhibited excellent reliability at both low (leg press extension: Intra Class Correlation (ICC)=0.93, knee extension: ICC=0.87) and high (Leg press extension: ICC=0.85, Knee Extension: ICC=0.91) external resistances. MP knee extension at 70% 1 RM also showed good agreement with average isokinetic power (R2=0.636). Conclusions: These findings support the reliability and concurrent validity of MP for the evaluation of muscle power in older individuals.

Keywords

aging pneumatic reliability strength 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Fielding RA, Fiatarone MA, Evans WJ, Roubenoff R. Aging of skeletal muscle: a 12-yr longitudinal study. J Appl Physiol 2000; 88: 1321–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hughes VA, Frontera WR, Wood M, et al. Longitudinal muscle strength changes in older adults: influence of muscle mass, physical activity, and health. J Gerontol 2001; 56: B209–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rantanen T, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Leveille S, Fried LP. Coimpairments: strength and balance as predictors of severe walking disability. J Gerontol 1999; 54: M172–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Metter EJ, Conwit R, Tobin J, Fozard JL. Age-associated loss of power and strength in the upper extremities in women and men. J Gerontol 1997; 52A: B267–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Whipple RH, Wolfson LI, Amerman PM. The relationship of knee and ankle weakness to falls in nursing home residents: an isokinetic study. J Am Geriatr 1987; 35: 13–20.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bassey EJ, Fiatarone MA, O’Neill EF, Kelly M, Evans WJ, Lipsitz LA. Leg extensor power and functional performance in very old men and women. Clin Sci 1992; 82: 321–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bean JF, Kiely DK, Herman S, et al. The relationship between leg power and physical performance in mobility-limited older people. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 461–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Suzuki T, Bean JF, Fielding RA. Muscle power of the ankle flexors predicts functional performance in community-dwelling older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2001; 49: 1161–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Foldvari M, Clark M, Laviolette LC, et al. Association of muscle power with functional status in community-dwelling elderly women. J Gerontol 2000; 55: M192–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bean JF, Leveille SG, Kiely DK, Bandinelli S, Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L. A comparison of leg power and leg strength within the InCHIANTI study: which influences mobility more? J Gerontol 2003; 58: 728–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cuoco A, Callahan DM, Sayers S, Frontera WR, Bean J, Fielding RA. Impact of muscle power and force on gait speed in disabled older men and women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2004; 59: 1200–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Slade JM, Miszko TA, Laity JH, Agrawal SK, Cress ME. Anaerobic power and physical function in strength-trained and non-strength-trained older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002; 57: M168–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bassey EJ, Short AH. A new method for measuring power output in a single leg extension: feasibility, reliability, and validity. Eur J Appl Physiol 1990; 60: 385–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Davey SL, Cyr-Campbell D, Anderson RA, Evans WJ. Effects of resistance training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle in older men. J Appl Physiol 1999; 86: 29–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    de Vos NJ, Singh NA, Ross DA, Stavrinos TM, Orr R, Fiatarone Singh MA. Optimal load for increasing muscle power during explosive resistance training in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2005; 60: 638–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Herman S, Kiely DK, Leveille S, O’Neill E, Cyberey S, Bean JF. Upper and lower limb muscle power relationships in mobility-limited older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2005; 60: 476–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thomas M, Fiatarone MA, Fielding RA. Leg extensor power in young women: functional correlates and relationship to body composition and strength. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996; 28: 1321–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jozsi AC, Campbell WW, Joseph L, Davey SL, Evans WJ. Changes in power with resistance training in older and younger men and women. J Gerontol 1999; 54A: M655–64.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fielding RA, LeBrasseur NK, Cuoco A, Bean J, Mizer K, Fiatarone Singh MA. High-velocity resistance training increases skeletal muscle peak power in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 655–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Folstein MF, Folstein SF, McHugh PR. “Mini-mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Psychiatr Res 1975; 12: 189–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferucci L, et al. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality in nursing home admission. J Gerontol 1994; 49: M85–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Evans WJ. Reliability of isokinetic muscle strength testing in 45 to 75 yr old men and women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993; 74: 1181–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Petrella JK, Miller LS, Cress ME. Leg extensor power, cognition, and functional performance in independent and marginally dependent older adults. Age Ageing 2004; 33: 342–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Skelton DA, Young A, Greig CA, Malbut KE. Effects of resistance training on strength, power, and selected functional abilities of women aged 75 and older. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995; 43: 1081–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Earles DR, Judge JO, Gunnarsson OT. Velocity training induces power-specific adaptations in highly functioning older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 872–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bean J, Herman S, Kiely DK, et al. Weighted stair climbing in mobility-limited older people: a pilot study. J Am Geriatr Soc 2002; 50: 663–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Signorile JF, Carmel MP, Czaja SJ, et al. Differential increases in average isokinetic power by specific muscle groups of older women due to variations in training and testing. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2002; 57: M683–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Miszko TA, Cress ME, Slade JM, Covey CJ, Agrawal SK, Doerr CE. Effect of strength and power training on physical function in community-dwelling older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2003; 58: 171–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Storer TW, Magliano L, Woodhouse L, et al. Testosterone dose-dependently increases maximal voluntary strength and leg power, but does not affect fatigability or specific tension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88: 1478–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Storer TW, Woodhouse LJ, Sattler F, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of nandrolone decanoate in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with mild to moderate weight loss with recombinant human growth hormone as active reference treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90: 4474–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bhasin S, Woodhouse L, Casaburi R, et al. Testosterone dose-response relationships in healthy young men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2001; 281: E1172–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Internal Publishing Switzerland 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Damien Callahan
    • 2
  • Edward Phillips
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Robert Carabello
    • 1
  • Walter R. Frontera
    • 3
  • Roger A. Fielding
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory Jean Mayer USDA, Human Nutrition Research Center on AgingTufts UniversityBostonUSA
  2. 2.Human Physiology Laboratory, Department of Health Sciences, Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation SciencesBoston UniversityBoston
  3. 3.Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Harvard Medical SchoolSpaulding Rehabilitation HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations