Advertisement

Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 16, Issue 5, pp 356–362 | Cite as

Effects of a physical activity program on postural stability in older people

  • Olivier A. Hue
  • Olivier Seynnes
  • Delphine Ledrole
  • Serge S. Colson
  • Pierre-Louis Bernard
Original Article

Abstract

Background and aims: The objective of this non-randomized study was to determine the influence of a specific physical activity program on the postural stability of older people. Methods: Seventy-four subjects (72.4±0.7 yrs) participated in an individualized three-month physical activity program designed to improve posture, balance and mobility — the PBM program. Sessions were held twice weekly. Postural stability was assessed using a force platform, subjects being in static and dynamic conditions, and with open and closed eyes. Changes in stabilometric parameters (Sway area, ML mean, AP mean, Total length, ML length and AP length) of the intervention group were compared to those of 14 control subjects (71.8±1.5 years). Results: A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures did not show any significant post-program change in postural stability in the hard floor condition. In contrast, Sway area (p<0.0005), Total length (p<0.001) and AP length (p<0.01) were significantly reduced after the training program in the foam floor condition, with open and closed eyes. In addition, in the mediolateral axis condition and with closed eyes, AP length in the intervention group was significantly reduced (p<0.01, and in the antero-posterior axis condition with both open and closed eyes, Sway area (p<0.0005), Total length (p<0.0005) and AP length (p<0.05) decreased significantly. Conclusions: As shown by the results in the foam floor and dynamic conditions, our individualized physical activity program improved the postural stability of older people when the standing position was challenged. However, the lack of significant results for the hard floor condition suggests that three months is not sufficient to improve static balance. The PBM physical activity program can be used for balance training in older people, but further studies are required to determine the time needed to effect improvements in static balance in this population.

Key Words

Balance elderly exercise postural stability stabilometry training program 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alexander NB. Postural control in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 1994; 42: 93–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tinetti ME. Performance-oriented assessment of mobility problems in elderly patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 1986; 34: 119–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Horak FB, Shupert CL, Mirka A. Components of postural dyscontrol in the elderly: a review. Neurobiol Aging 1989; 10: 727–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998; 30: 992–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hunter GR, Treuth MS, Weinsier RL, et al. The effects of strength conditioning on older women’s ability to perform daily tasks. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995; 43: 756–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sauvage LR, Myklebust BM, Crow-Pan J, et al. A clinical trial of strengthening and aerobic exercise to improve gait and balance in elderly male nursing home residents. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1992; 71: 333–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chandler JM, Duncan PW, Kochersberger G, Studenski S. Is lower extremity strength gain associated with improvement in physical performance and disability in frail, community-dwelling elders? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1998; 79: 24–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Province MA, Hadley EC, Hornbrook MC, et al. The effects of exercise on falls in elderly patients. A preplanned meta-analysis of the FICSIT trials. Frailty and injuries: cooperative studies of intervention techniques. JAMA 1995; 273: 1341–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hu MH, Woollacott MH. Multisensory training of standing balance in older adults: I. Postural stability and one-leg stance balance. J Gerontol 1994; 49: M52–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Judge JO, Lindsey C, Underwood M, Winsemius D. Balance improvements in older women: effects of exercise training. Phys Ther 1993; 73: 254–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Topp R, Mikesky A, Wigglesworth J, Holt W Jr, Edwards JE. The effect of a 12-week dynamic resistance strength training program on gait velocity and balance of older adults. Gerontologist 1993; 33: 501–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johansson G, Jarnlo B. Balance training in 70-year-old women. Phys Ther 1991; 7: 121–5.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crilly RG, Willems DA, Trenholm KJ, Hayes KC, Delaquerriere-Richardson LF. Effect of exercise on postural sway in the elderly. Gerontology 1989; 35: 137–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lichtenstein MJ, Shields SL, Shiavi RG, Burger C. Exercise and balance in aged women: a pilot controlled clinical trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1989; 70: 138–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lord SR, Ward JA, Williams P. Exercise effect on dynamic stability in older women: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1996; 77: 232–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ledin T, Kronhed AC, Moller C, Moller M, Odkvist LM, Olsson B. Effects of balance training in elderly evaluated by clinical tests and dynamic posturography. J Vestib Res 1990–1; 1: 129–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Buchner DM, Cress ME, de Lateur BJ, et al. The effect of strength and endurance training on gait, balance, fall risk, and health services use in community-living older adults. J Gerontol 1997; 52: M218–24.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seidler RD, Martin PE. The effects of short-term balance training on the postural control of older adults. Gait Posture 1997; 6: 224–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Patla AE, Frank JS, Winter DA. Balance control in the elderly: implications for clinical assessment and rehabilitation. Can J Public Health 1992; 83 (Suppl 2): S29–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Boyette LW, Lloyd A, Manuel S, Boyette JE, Echt KV. Development of an exercise expert system for older adults. J Rehabil Res Dev 2001; 38: 79–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hue O, Ledrole D, Seynnes O, Bernard PL. Influence of a typical “Posture-Balance-Mobility” motor practice on the postural capacities of elderly people. Ann Réadaptation Méd Phys 2001; 44: 81–8 (in French).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Seynnes O, Hue O, Ledrole D, Bernard PL. Adapted physical activity in old age: effects of a low intensity training program on isokinetic power and fatigability. Aging Clin Exp Res 2002; 14: 491–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wu G, Chiang JH. The effects of surface compliance on foot pressure in stance. Gait Posture 1996; 4: 122–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chiang JH, Wu G. The influence of foam surfaces on biomechanical variables contributing to postural control. Gait Posture 1997; 5: 239–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Golomer E, Dupui P, Monod H. Sex-linked differences in equilibrium reactions among adolescents performing complex sensorimotor tasks. J Physiology (Paris) 1997; 91: 49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Rooks DS, Kiel DP, Parsons C, Hayes WC. Self-paced resistance training and walking exercise in community-dwelling older adults: effects on neuromotor performance. J Gerontol 1997; 52: M161–8.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Corriveau H, Hebert R, Prince F, Raiche M. Postural control in the elderly: an analysis of test-retest and interrater reliability of the COP-COM variable. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001; 82: 80–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Owings TM, Pavol MJ, Foley KT, Grabiner MD. Measures of postural stability are not predictors of recovery from large postural disturbances in healthy older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 2000; 48: 42–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lord SR, Castell S. Physical activity program for older persons: effect on balance, strength, neuromuscular control, and reaction time. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1994; 75: 648–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Woollacott MH, Shumway-Cook A, Nashner LM. Aging and posture control: changes in sensory organization and muscular coordination. Int J Aging Hum Dev 1986; 23: 97–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Internal Publishing Switzerland 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olivier A. Hue
    • 1
  • Olivier Seynnes
    • 1
  • Delphine Ledrole
    • 2
  • Serge S. Colson
    • 1
  • Pierre-Louis Bernard
    • 3
  1. 1.Laboratory of the Physiology of Adaptations, Motor Performance and Health, Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of Nice Sophia-AntipolisNice Cedex 3France
  2. 2.Communal Center of Social ActionCannes
  3. 3.Laboratory of Sport, Performance and Health, Faculty of Sport SciencesUniversity of MontpellierMontpellierFrance

Personalised recommendations