Aging Clinical and Experimental Research

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 108–116 | Cite as

Cerebral perfusion deficits in age-associated memory impairment. The role of tobacco smoking

  • Arkadiusz Siennicki-Lantz
  • Bo Lilja
  • Sölve Elmståhl
Original Articles

Abstract

Background and aims: Several studies report a high prevalence of memory complaints in the elderly, non-demented population. Since the pathogenesis and diversity of memory impairment in healthy people is still an unresolved issue, we designed our study to ascertain the occurrence of brain abnormalities in Age-Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI) by measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Methods: Fifty-three subjects were invited to the case-control study: 26 subjects who fulfilled the AAMI criteria, and 27 controls (age, mean±SD 65.8±7.3 vs 65.5±6.7). rCBF was determined using 99mTCECD SPECT by relative measurements made in the cortical and white matter regions and in the thalamus. Results: The AAMI group vs controls had restricted rCBF in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere (median; 85.8 vs 87.8, p=0.04), in the thalamus (median; 87.3 vs 89.8, p=0.036) and the frontal white matter (median; right hemisphere 80.0 vs 84.1, p=0.01; left hemisphere 77.7 vs 81.6, p=0.04). AAMI subjects who previously smoked had lower rCBF values in the temporal, parietal, occipital and frontal lobes bilaterally, and poorer memory test results than ex-smoker controls. By contrast, rCBF did not differ between non-smoking AAMI subjects and controls. Conclusions: Compared to controls, AAMI subjects had restricted rCBF. A history of previous smoking could partly contribute to the rCBF differences between these groups. Further studies on failing memory and rCBF in representative cohorts of smoking and non-smoking populations are now needed.

Keywords

Age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) aging cerebral blood flow memory smoking 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Derouesné C, Alperovitch A, Arvay N, et al. Memory complaints in the elderly: a study of 367 community-dwelling individuals from 50 to 80 years old. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1989; 1 (Suppl): 151–63.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Tobiansky R, Blizard R, Livingston G, Mann A. The Gospel Oak Study stage IV: the clinical relevance of subjective memory impairment in older people. Psychol Med 1995; 25: 779–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Smith GE, Petersen RC, Ivnik RJ, Malec JF, Tangalos EG. Subjective memory complaints, psychological distress, and longitudinal change in objective memory performance. Psychol Aging 1996; 11: 272–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grut M, Form AF, Fratiglioni L, Forsell Y, Viitanen M, Winblad B. Memory complaints of elderly people in a population survey: variation according to dementia stage and depression. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993; 41: 1295–1300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jonker C, Launer L, Hoojier C, Lindeboom J. Memory complaints and memory impairment in older individuals. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44: 44–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Larrebee GJ, Crook TH. Estimated prevalence of age-associated memory impairment derived from standardized tests of memory function. Int Psychogeriatr 1994; 6: 95–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Flicker C, Ferris SH, Reisberg B. A longitudinal study of cognitive function in elderly persons with subjective memory complaints. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993; 41: 1029–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Johansson B, Zarit SH, Berg S. Changes in cognitive functioning of the oldest old. J Gerontol 1992; 47: 75–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crook T, Bartus RT, Ferris SH, Whitehouse P, Cohen GD, Gershon S. Age-Associated Memory Impairment: Proposed diagnostic criteria and measures of clinical change. Report of the National Institute of Mental Health Work Group. Dev Neuropsychol 1986; 2: 261–76.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koivisto K, Reinikainen T, Hänninen T, et al. Prevalence of age-associated memory impairment in a randomly selected population from eastern Finland. Neurology 1995; 45: 741–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barker A, Jones R, Jennison C. A prevalence study of age-associated memory impairment. Br J Psychiatry 1995; 167: 642–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hänninen T, Hallikainen M, Koivisto K, et al. A follow-up study of age-associated memory impairment: neuropsychological predictors of dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995; 43: 1007–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Parnetti L, Lowenthal DT, Presciutti O, et al. 1-H-MRS, MRI-based hippocampal volumetry, and 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT in normal aging, age-associated memory impairment, and probable Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44: 133–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Small GW, La Rue A, Komo S, Kaplan A, Mandelkern MA. Predictors of cognitive change in middle-aged and older adults with memory loss. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152: 1757–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Soininen HS, Partanen K, Pitkänen A, et al. Volumetric MRI analysis of the amygdala and the hippocampus in subjects with age-associated memory impairment: correlation to visual and verbal memory. Neurology 1994; 44: 1660–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Soininen HS, Karhu J, Partanen J, et al. Habituation of auditory N100 correlates with amygdaloid volumes and frontal functions in age-associated memory impairment. Physiol Behav 1995; 57: 927–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Elias MF, Wolf PA, D’Agostino RB, Cobb J, White LR. Untreated blood pressure level is inversely related to cognitive functioning: the Framingham Study. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 138: 353–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Linn RT, Wolf PA, Bachman DL, et al. The ‘preclinical phase’ of probable Alzheimer’s disease. A 13-year prospective study of the Framingham cohort. Arch Neurol 1995; 52: 485–90.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rogers RL, Meyer JS, Shaw TG, Mortel KF, Hardenberg JP, Zaid RR. Cigarette smoking decreases cerebral blood flow suggesting increased risk for stroke. JAMA 1983; 250: 2796–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rogers RL, Meyer JS, Judd BW, Mortel KF. Abstention from cigarette smoking improves cerebral perfusion among elderly chronic smokers. JAMA 1985; 253: 2970–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meyer JS, Judd BW, Tawaklna T, Rogers RL, Mortel KF. Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia. JAMA 1986; 256: 2203–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Crook III TH, Feher E, Larrabee G. Assessment of memory complaint in age-associated memory impairment: the MAC-Q. Int Psychogeriatr 1992; 4: 165–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. Mini-mental state: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 1975; 12: 189–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chang LT. A method for attenuation correction in radionuclide computed tomography. IEEE Trans Nucl Sci 1978; 25: 638–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Siennicki-Lantz A, Lilja B, Rosén I, Elmståhl S. Cerebral blood flow in white matter is correlated with systolic blood pressure and EEG in senile dementia of the Alzheimer Type. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 1998; 9: 29–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Elmståhl S, Siennicki-Lantz A, Lilja B, Bjunö L. A study of regional cerebral blood flow using 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT in elderly women with senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type. Dementia 1994; 5: 302–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Forstl H, Hentschel F, Sattel H, et al. Age-associated memory impairment and early Alzheimer’s disease. Only time will tell the difference. Arzneimittelforschung 1995; 45: 394–7.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ford AB, Mefrouche Z, Friedland RP, Debanne SM. Smoking and cognitive impairment: a population-based study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1996; 44: 905–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hebert LE, Scherr PA, Beckett LA, et al. Relation of smoking and low to moderate alcohol consumption to change in cognitive function. A longitudinal study in a defined community of older persons. Am J Epidemiol 1993; 137: 881–91.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rogers RL, Meyer JS, Mortel KF, Mahurin RK, Judd BW. Decreased cerebral blood flow precedes multi-infarct dementia, but follows senile dementia of Alzheimer type. Neurology 1986; 36: 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Heyman A, Wilkinson WE, Stafford JA, Helms MJ, Sigmon AH, Weinberg T. Alzheimer’s disease: a study of epidemiological aspects. Ann Neurol 1984; 15: 335–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Prince M, Cullen M, Mann A. Risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and dementia: a case-control study based on the MRC elderly hypertension trial. Neurology 1994; 44: 97–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Jones GM, Reith M, Philpot MP, Sahakian BJ. Smoking and dementia of Alzheimer type. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1987; 50: 1383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Brenner DE, Kukull WA, van Belle G, et al. Relationship between cigarette smoking and Alzheimer’s disease in a population-based case-control study. Neurology 1993; 43: 293–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ferini-Strambi L, Smirne S, Garancini P, Pinto P, Franceschi M. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of Alzheimer’s disease with presenile onset: a case control study. Neuroepidemiology 1990; 9: 39–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hillier V, Salib E. A case-control study of smoking and Alzheimer’s disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 1997; 12: 295–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lee PN. Smoking and Alzheimer’s disease: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Neuroepidemiology 1994; 13: 131–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    van Duijn CM, Hofman A. Relation between nicotine intake and Alzheimer’s disease. BMJ 1991; 302: 1491–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Graves AB, van Duijn CM, Chandra V, et al. Alcohol and tobacco consumption as risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group. Int J Epidemiol 1991; 20(Suppl 2): S48–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hebert LE, Scherr PA, Beckett LA, et al. Relation of smoking and alcohol consumption to incident Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Epidemiol 1992; 135: 347–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang HX, Fratiglioni L, Frisoni GB, Viitanen M, Winblad B. Smoking and the occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease: cross-sectional and longitudinal data in a population-based study. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 149: 640–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Launer LJ, Feskens EJ, Kalmijn S, Kromhout D. Smoking, drinking, and thinking. The Zutphen Elderly Study. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 143: 219–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Galanis DJ, Petrovitch H, Launer LJ, Harris TB, Foley DJ, White LR. Smoking history in middle age and subsequent cognitive performance in elderly Japanese-American men. The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study. Am J Epidemiol 1996; 145: 507–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ott A, Slooter AJ, Hofman A, et al. Smoking and risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease in a population-based cohort study: the Rotterdam Study. Lancet 1998; 351: 1840–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pautler E.L. The possible role and treatment of deficient microcirculation regulation in age-associated memory impairment. Med Hypotheses 1994; 42: 363–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Internal Publishing Switzerland 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arkadiusz Siennicki-Lantz
    • 1
  • Bo Lilja
    • 2
  • Sölve Elmståhl
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Community MedicineSection of Geriatric MedicineSweden
  2. 2.Department of Clinical PhysiologyUniversity of Lund, Malmö University HospitalMalmöSweden

Personalised recommendations