Advertisement

Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a group of school-aged children in Benghazi, Libya

  • D. Fteita
  • A. Ali
  • Satu Alaluusua
Article

Abstract

Aim: Molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) is common in many countries and it has a significant impact on treatment need. The aim of the present study was to assess developmental enamel defects with an emphasis to MIH in children from four primary schools in Benghazi, Libya. Methods: Permanent first molars, totaling 378 (188 in females) in 7.0-8.9-year-old children were examined for demarcated opacities, diffuse opacities and hypoplasia in their schools using a portable light, a mirror, and a probe. A subgroup of children attending two of the four schools and having all incisors and first molars erupted (N = 154) was examined for enamel defects in these teeth. Results: There were 11 children (2.9%) presenting with MIH. The mean value of demarcated opacities in their first molars was 1.5. MIH lesions were found only in 1.1% of the children’s first molars (tooth prevalence) and all lesions were mild. Six children (1.6%) had diffuse opacities and 3 (0.8%) had hypoplastic defects in their first molars. Fourteen out of 154 children (9%), who had both incisors and molars examined, had some kind of developmental enamel defect: 11 children (7.1%) had demarcated opacities, 3 (1.9%) had diffuse opacities, and none had hypoplasia. Conclusion: MIH was rare in Benghazi, Libya. The prevalence was clearly lower than in comparable studies performed in Italy or in Nordic countries, where, according to the earlier reports, MIH is seen in every fifth or sixth child. Our result may be valuable when so far mostly unknown etiology behind MIH is investigated.

Key words

Enamel opacities Enamel hypomineralization teeth children 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alaluusua S, Lukinmaa P-L, Koskimies M, et al. Developmental dental defects associated with long breast feeding. Eur J Oral Sci 1996a;104:493–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alaluusua S, Lukinmaa P-L, Vartiainen T, et al. Polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins and dibenzofurans via mother’s milk may cause developmental defects in the child’s teeth. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 1996b;1:193–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beentjes VE, Weerheijm KL, Groen HJ. Factors involved in the aetiology of molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). Eur J Paediatr Dent 2002;3:9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Calderara PC, Gerthoux PM, P. Mocarelli P, et al. The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a group of Italian school children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2005;6:79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Clarkson J, O’Mullane D. A modified DDE Index for use in epidemiological studies of enamel defects. J Dent Res 1989;68:445–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dietrich G, Sperling S, Hetzer G. Molar incisor hypomineralisation in a group of children and adolescents living in Dresden (Germany). Eur J Paediatr Dent 2003;4:133–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Esmark L, Simonsen P. Occurrence of hypomineralized teeth in 7-year-old Danish children. Göteborg, Sweden: 15th Congress of International Association of Paediatric Dentistry, 1995. Abtract no. 56.Google Scholar
  8. Hong L, Levy M, Warren JJ, et al. Association of amoxicillin use during early childhood with developmental tooth enamel defects. Arch Pediatr Med 2005;159:943–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hölttä P, Kiviranta H, Leppäniemi A, et al. Developmental dental defects in children who reside by a river polluted by dioxins and furans. Arch Environ Health 2001;56:522–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jälevik B, Klingberg G, Barregård L, Norén JG. The prevalence of demarcated opacities in permanent first molars in a group of Swedish children. Acta Odontol Scand 2001a;59:255–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jälevik B, Norén JG, Klingberg G, Barregård L. Etiological factors influencing the prevalence of demarcated opacities in permanent first molars in a group of Swedish children. Eur J Dent Sci 2001b;109:1–5.Google Scholar
  12. Koch G, Hallonsten A-L, Ludvigsson N, et al. Epidemiologic study of idiopathic enamel hypomineralization in permanent teeth of Swedish children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1987;15:279–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Leppäniemi A, Lukinmaa P-L, Alaluusua S. Nonfluoride hypomineralizations in the permanent first molars and their impact on the treatment need. Caries Res 2001;35:36–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mejare I, Bergman E, Grindefjord M. Hypomineralized molars and incisors of unknown origin: treatment outcome at age 18 years. Int J Paediatr Dent 2005;15:20–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Schour I, Massler M. Studies in tooth development: the growth pattern of human teeth. Part II. J Am Dent Assoc 1940;27:1918–31.Google Scholar
  16. Suckling GW, Brown RH, Herbison GP. The prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in 696 nine-year-old New Zealand children participating in a health and development study. Community Dent Health 1985;2:303–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Tapias-Ledesma MA, Jiminez R, Lamas F, et al. Children with first molar dental enamel defects: a multivariate epidemiological approach. 2003;70(3):215–20.Google Scholar
  18. Van Amerongen WE, Kreulen CM. Cheese molars: a pilot study of the aetiology of hypocalcification in first permanent molars. J Dent Child 1995;4:266–9.Google Scholar
  19. Weerheijm KL, Jälevik B, Alaluusua S. Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH). Caries Res 2001;35:390–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Weerheijm KL, Groen HJ, Beentjes VE, Poorterman JH. Prevalence of cheese molars in eleven-year-old Dutch children. ASDC J Dent Child 2001;68:259–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Weerheijm KL, Mejare I. Molar incisor hypomineralization: a questionnaire inventory of its occurrence in member countries of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD). Int J Paediatr Dent 2003;13:411–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zagdwon AM, Toumba KJ, Curzon ME. The prevalence of developmental enamel defects in permanent molars in a group of English school children. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2002;3:91–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Paediatric and Preventive DentistryUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.Biomedicum HelsinkiUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial DiseasesHelsinki University Central HospitalHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations