Welding in the World

, Volume 52, Issue 3–4, pp 54–67 | Cite as

Disbonding of Austenitic Stainless Steel Cladding Following High Temperature Hydrogen Service

  • M. F. Gittos
Research Supplement


The influence of welding process, consumable type and postweld heat treatment (PWHT) on the phenomenon of disbonding was investigated. Small weld clad test blocks were thermally charged with hydrogen in an autoclave. A range of austenitic stainless steel consumables and an ERNiCr-3 alloy were used to make the claddings on 2.25Cr-1 Mo parent metal by submerged-arc strip and wire, electroslag, plasma hot wire, and manual metal arc processes. The effects of simple and multiple postweld heat treatments at 565–690 °C were determined and local hydrogen contents in clad materials were determined both by measurement and also finite element modelling. Examination of the interface microstructures and disbonding cracks showed that the cracks were located in the compositional/microstructural transition zone within about 100 μm of the fusion boundary. In this region, martensite was present after PWHT, giving rise to high hardness and susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement. Some disbonding sensitivity was found with all consumable types, but the stainless steel overlays showed appreciably higher susceptibility than the ERNiCr-3 cladding. Disbonding resistance was higher with manual metal arc (MMA) welding than with the various high deposition rate methods. The microstructure of the bulk first-layer cladding exerted an influence on susceptibility with both high ferrite and high martensite being beneficial. Minimising postweld heat treatment time and temperature reduced disbonding, as did duplex postweld heat treatments with the second stage temperature at or below 650 °C. Computed and measured hydrogen levels indicated that a peak in hydrogen concentration formed near the interface on cooling.

IIW-Thesaurus keywords

Austenitic stainless steels Clad metals Clad steels Computation Cracking Creep resisting materials Defects Electroslag surfacing Embrittlement Finite element analysis Gases Heat treatment Hydrogen Hydrogen embrittlement Interfaces Low alloy Cr Mo steels Low alloy steels Microstructure MMA surfacing Nickel alloys Plasma surfacing Post weld heat treatment Reference lists Stainless steels Steels Submerged arc surfacing Surfacing 


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Copyright information

© International Institute of Welding 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. F. Gittos
    • 1
  1. 1.TWIUK

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