Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

An Overview of the Heat-Affected Zone Sensitization and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behaviour of 12% Chromium Type 1.4003 Ferritic Stainless Steel

  • 195 Accesses

  • 5 Citations

Abstract

This document presents an overview of the findings of several investigations into the susceptibility of 12 % chromium type 1.4003 ferritic stainless steel to heat-affected zone sensitization and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. A description of the sensitization behaviour of these steels is complicated by the partial transformation of δ-ferrite to austenite on cooling. During slow cooling or annealing below the A1 temperature, this austenite decomposes to form desensitized ferrite and M23C6-type carbide precipitates. The rapid cooling rates associated with welding, however, prevent the transformation of austenite to ferrite at lower temperatures, and any austenite formed on cooling transforms to martensite below the Ms-temperature. Four distinct modes of heat-affected zone sensitization have been identified to date. Sensitization of the martensite phase may occur on welding material inadvertently annealed above the A1 temperature (Mode 1), or when multiple welds are positioned in such a way that the heat-affected zone of the 2nd pass overlaps the heat-affected zone of the 1st pass (Mode 2). Rapid cooling after very low heat input welding may sensitize the ferrite phase (Mode 3), whereas very slow cooling after welding at excessively high heat input levels may lead to sensitization of the austenite phase (Mode 4). Results examining the influence of Modes 1 and 2 heat-affected zone sensitization on the incidence of intergranular stress corrosion cracking are presented.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. [1]

    3CR12 — The Utility Stainless Steel, 1997, Technical Manual published by Columbus Stainless.

  2. [2]

    3CR12 — Technical Data, 2004, Technical Manual published by Columbus Stainless.

  3. [3]

    Maxwell D.K., Warrington J., Dewar K.: From niche to commodity, 3CR12 — a ten-year scenario, Corrosion Reviews, 1993, 11, 3–4, pp. 17–32.

  4. [4]

    Grobler C.: Weldability studies on 12% and 14% chromium steels, PhD dissertation, University of Pretoria, South Africa, 1987.

  5. [5]

    Meyer A.M.: Interstitial diffusion from the weld metal into the high temperature heat affected zone in 11–12 percent chromium steel welded joints, MEng thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa, 2000.

  6. [6]

    Matthews L.M., Griesel B., Longman P.T., Van Rooyen G.T., Prozzi J.M.: Sensitisation in low-carbon 12% chromium containing stainless steels, Proceedings of the 14th International Corrosion Congress, Cape Town, South Africa, 1999, p. 332.

  7. [7]

    Folkhard E.: Welding metallurgy of stainless steels, Springer-Verlag, Vienna, 1988, p. 11.

  8. [8]

    Greeff M.L.: The influence of welding parameters on the sensitisation behaviour of 3CR12, MSc thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa, 2005.

  9. [9]

    Bavarian B., Szklarska-Smialowska Z., MacDonald D.D.: Effect of temperature on the stress corrosion cracking of tempered type 403 martensitic stainless steel in sodium sulfate solution, Corrosion, 1982, 38, 12, pp. 604–608.

  10. [10]

    Nishimura R.: Stress corrosion cracking of type 430 ferritic stainless steel in chloride and sulfate solutions, Corrosion, 1992, 48, 11, pp. 882–890.

  11. [11]

    Frangini S.: Sensitivity to stress corrosion cracking of type 405 stainless steel in high-temperature aqueous environments, Corrosion, 1994, 50, 6, pp. 447–456.

  12. [12]

    Číhal V.: Intergranular corrosion of steels and alloys, Material Science Monographs, Elsevier, 1984, 18, pp. 79–83.

  13. [13]

    Solomon H.D., Devine T.M.: Duplex stainless steels — A tale of two phases, Proceedings of duplex stainless steels, St. Louis, USA, 1984, pp. 693–756.

  14. [14]

    Tuling A.: EELS study of sensitisation in 12% chromium steel, Proceedings of the Microscopy Society of Southern Africa, 2001, 31, p. 26.

  15. [15]

    Tomari H., Fujiwara K., Shimogori K., Fukuzuka T., Kanda M.: Intergranular stress corrosion cracking of 13 % Cr and 18 % Cr ferritic steels in high temperature high purity water, Corrosion, 1982, 38, 5, pp. 283–294.

  16. [16]

    Frangini S., Mignone A.: Modified electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation method for detecting sensitisation in 12 wt. % chromium ferritic stainless steels, Corrosion 1992, 48, 9, pp. 715–726.

  17. [17]

    Williams J.G., Barbaro F.J.: Sensitisation and intergranular stress corrosion cracking of the HAZ of welded 12% Cr ferritic stainless steels, Australasian Welding Journal, 2005, 50, 4th quarter, pp. 34–47.

  18. [18]

    Greeff M.L., Du Toit M.: Sensitisation of two 11–12 % chromium type EN 1.4003 ferritic stainless steels during continuous cooling after welding, IIW Document IX-2182–05, Welding in the World, 2006, vol. 50, No. 7/8, pp. 18–27.

  19. [19]

    Kaltenhauser R.H.: Source book on the Ferritic Stainless Steel, ASM Engineering Bookshelf, 1982, pp. 212–218.

  20. [20]

    Van Rooyen G.T.: The susceptibility of 12 % Cr steel to SCC after welding, Fracture 2000, Cape town, South Africa.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Du Toit, M., Van Rooyen, G.T. & Smith, D. An Overview of the Heat-Affected Zone Sensitization and Stress Corrosion Cracking Behaviour of 12% Chromium Type 1.4003 Ferritic Stainless Steel. Weld World 51, 41–50 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03266599

Download citation

IIW-Thesaurus keywords

  • Corrosion
  • Cracking
  • Defects
  • Ferritic stainless steels
  • Heat affected zone
  • Intergranular corrosion
  • Reference lists
  • Stainless steels
  • Steels
  • Stress corrosion
  • Weld zone