The ultrasonic time-of-flight-diffraction (TOFD) technique has been used mainly to detect and precisely size flaws in welded butt joints. But industrial applicability of the conventional TOFD technique is restricted due to inspection targets’shape complexity and ultrasonic noise. In order to increase the applicability of the TOFD technique for real industrial targets, various improved TOFD techniques have been developed. In this paper, industrial applications and limitations of the conventional TOFD technique and newly developed TOFD technologies, which can overcome those limitations, are presented.
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Nishikawa, A., Nagahama, N., Umeda, K. et al. Industrial Applications of Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight-Diffraction(TOFD) Techniques for Various Field Targets. Weld World 49, 68–74 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03266491
- Ultrasonic testing
- Nondestructive testing