European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 22–25 | Cite as

Influence of salvadora persica (miswak) extract on physical and antimicrobial properties of glass ionomer cement

  • A. El-TatariEmail author
  • J. J. de Soet
  • A. J. de Gee
  • M. Abou Shelib
  • W. E. van Amerongen


AIM: To investigate physical and antimicrobial properties of Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) combined with Salvadora Persica Extract (SPE). METHODS: SPE was added to GIC (Fuji IX) in concentrations of 1%, 2% and 4% w/w. The compressive strength and diametral tensile strength were measured at 1 h, 24 h and 7 days. The antimicrobial effect was tested in agar dilution assay in blood agar plates with Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius and Actinomyces naeslundii as test organisms. GIC containing 5% chlorhexidine served as positive control. RESULTS: Significant differences were found for the compressive strength and diametral tensile strength as a result of adding SPE to GIC (p<0.05). GIC with 2 or 4 % SPE was significantly weaker than the GIC control, while GIC with 1% SPE was not different from the control. The mean values for the 4% SPE-containing specimens and the GIC control group ranged from 108.7MPa to 141.1MPa for CS and from 8.2MPa to 12.5MPa for DTS. The 1% SPE-containing specimens were not different in physical properties compared to the control GIC specimens; the 2% SPE-containing specimens were statistically slightly less strong (p<0.05), but within an acceptable range. As compared with pure GIC the antimicrobial properties of the SPE-containing specimens were increased significantly (p<0.01). It has been found up to a 2-fold increased inhibition compared to the GIC with increasing concentrations of SPE. For most microorganisms tested the SPE group inhibited less than Chlorhexidine, but significantly better than pure GIC (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: SPE could be a promising natural material as an additive to GICs. Further studies should include in vivo tests and other antimicrobial and physical properties of this combination.

Key words

salvadora persica (Miswak) glass ionomer physical antimicrobial 


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Copyright information

© European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. El-Tatari
    • 1
    Email author
  • J. J. de Soet
    • 2
  • A. J. de Gee
    • 3
  • M. Abou Shelib
    • 3
  • W. E. van Amerongen
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept of Paediatric DentistryAcademic Centre of Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)AmsterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Dept of Oral MicrobiologyAcademic Centre of Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)AmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Dept of Dental Material ScienceAcademic Centre of Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)AmsterdamThe Netherlands

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