European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry

, Volume 11, Issue 5, pp 232–235 | Cite as

Efficiency of different polyacrylic acid concentrations on the smear layer, after ART technique, by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

  • D. P. RaggioEmail author
  • F. G. Sônego
  • L. B. Camargo
  • M. Marquezan
  • J. C. Imparato


AIM: To assess the efficiency of different polyacrylic acid concentrations on the removal of the smear layer after caries removal with hand and rotary instruments in affected dentine of primary teeth. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro study. METHODS: Six exfoliated primary molars with carious lesions were divided into two groups for caries removal: (1) hand instrument or (2) low speed bur. Each tooth was cut into four pieces. One piece assigned as control surface and the other three surfaces were actively treated with either 40% Fuji IXGP Liquid (GC America), or 40% Fuji IXGP Liquid diluted with water, and 25% Ketac MolarTM Conditioner (3M-ESPE). Surfaces were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All images were submitted to an analysis by an experienced SEM professional, regarding presence or absence of smear layer and dentinal demineralization pattern. Chi-squared test was carried out (5% significance). RESULTS: There was no difference concerning the presence of a smear layer in relation to the method of caries removal, and 40% Fuji IXGP diluted with water causes a higher demineralization when compared with the control group of teeth (p=0.01). CONCLUSION: Treatments with polyacrylic acid are indicated prior to glass ionomer cement application in primary teeth.


Scanning electron microscopy glass ionomer cements primary teeth Paediatric Dentistry 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aboush YEY, Jenkins CBG. An evaluation of the bonding of glass ionomer restoratives to dentine and enamel. Br Dent J. 1986; 161:179–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Black GV. Operative Dentistry. The technical procedures in filling teeth. Chicago: Medico-Dental Publishing Co; 1908 apud Kidd EAM. How clean must a cavity be before restoration? Caries Res. 2004; 38:305–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bonifácio CC, Kleverlaan CJ, Raggio DP, et al. Physical-mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment. Aust Dent J. 2009;54(3):233–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. El-Askary FS, Nassif MS, Fawzy AS. Shear bond strength of glass-ionomer adhesive to dentin: effect of smear layer thickness and different dentin conditioners. J Adhes Dent. 2008;10(6):471–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ercan E, Dülgergil ÇT, Soyman M, Dalli M, Yildirim I. A field-trial of two restorative material used with Atraumatic Restorative Treatment in rural Turkey: 24-month results. J Appl Oral Sci 2009; 17(4):307–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frencken J, Phantumvanit P, Pilot T. Atraumatic restorative treatment technique of dental caries. WHO Manual. Second Edition, February; WHO 1994.Google Scholar
  7. Frencken J, Pilot T, Van Amerongen E, Phantumvanit P, Songpaisan Y. Manual for the atraumatic restorative treatment approach to control dental caries. Groningen: WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Health Services Research. Third Edition, January; 1997.Google Scholar
  8. Fusayama T. Two layers of carious dentin; diagnosis and treatment. Oper Dent 1979;4(2):63–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Gaskin EB, Harless JD, Wefel JS, et al. Fluorescence changes in remineralized and nonremineralized enamel adjacent to glass ionomer ART restorations: An in vitro study. J Dent Child 2007; 74(3): 215–20.Google Scholar
  10. Gwinnett AJ. Smear layer: morphological considerations. Oper Dent. 1984; (suppl3):3-12.Google Scholar
  11. Hajizadeh H, Ghavamnasiri M, Namazikhah MS, Majidinia S, Bagheri M. Effect of different conditioning protocols on the adhesion of a glass ionomer cement to dentin. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2009 Jul 1;10(4):9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hewlett ER, Caputo AA, Wrobel DC. Glass ionomer bond strength and treatment of dentin with polyacrylic acid. J Prosthet Dent. 1991; 66:767–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hosoya Y. Effect of acid etching on normal and carious primary dentin: scanning electron microscopic observations. J Pedod. 1988; 12(4): 362–369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kidd EAM. Cavity sealing ability of composite and glass ionomer cement restorations. Br Dent J. 1978; 144(5): 139–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Long TE, Duke ES, Norling BK. Polyacrylic Acid cleaning of dentin and glass ionomer bond strength. J Dent Res. 1986; 65: 345.Google Scholar
  16. Massara MLA, Alves JB, Brandão PRG. Atraumatic Restorative Treatment: clinical, ultrastructural and chemical analysis. Caries Res. 2002; 36: 430–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Meryon SD, Tobias RS, Jakeman KJ. Smear removal agents: A quantitative study in vivo and in vitro. J Prosthet Dent. 1987 February; 57(2): 174–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nör JE, Feigal RJ, Dennison JB, Edwards CA. Dentin bonding: SEM comparison of the dentin surface in primary and permanent teeth. Pediatr Dent. 1997 May–June; 19(4): 246–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Pashley DH. Smear layer: physiological considerations. Oper Dent 1984. (Suppl 3): 13–29.Google Scholar
  20. Sumikawa AD, Marshall GW, Gee L et al. Microstructure of primary tooth dentin. Pediatr Dent. 1999; 21(7): 439–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Powis DR, Folleras T, Merson AS, Wilson AD. Improved adhesion of a glass ionomer cement to dentin and enamel. J Dent Res. 1982; 61:1416–1422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Tomes J. A system of dental surgery. London: John Churchill; 1859. p. 336 apud Shovelton DS. A study of deep carious dentine. Int Dent J. 1968; 18 (2): p. 392–405.Google Scholar
  23. Wilson AD, McLean JW. Adhesion. In: Glass ionomer cement. Chicago: Quintessence; 1988. p. 83–106.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. P. Raggio
    • 1
    Email author
  • F. G. Sônego
    • 2
    • 3
  • L. B. Camargo
    • 1
  • M. Marquezan
    • 2
    • 3
  • J. C. Imparato
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept of Orthodontics and Paediatric DentistryUnivesity of Sao Paulo, SPSao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Dept of Paediatric Densirty Sao LeopolloMedical Dental Faculty SPSao PauloBrazil
  3. 3.Dept of Restorative dentistryFederal University of Santa MariaSao PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations