Aim: This was to determine the prevalence and distribution of traumatic injuries to primary anterior teeth in children from 1 to 3 years-old. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out through clinical examination of the primary dentitions of pre-school children enrolled in public nursery schools in Joao Pessoa (Brazil). A total of 293 boys and girls participated in the study. The children were clinically examined for signs of trauma according to Andreasen’s classification [1994.] Results: Traumatic injuries were identified in 10.2 % of children. The largest percentage of injuries was demonstrated by 2–3 years-old, with no significant difference between boys and girls. The most common type of injury was enamel fracture and enamel-dentine fracture. The maxillary central incisor was the most vulnerable to injury, without differences between the right and left side. Statistics: The data were entered in the SPSS program, and the chi square test was used with a 5% significance level. Conclusion: The primary dentition was most affected by fracture of enamel, especially the maxillary central incisor teeth, in patients between 2 and 3 years of age. There is a need of providing adequate preventive and treatment care for preschool children.