Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Drug Removal by Continuous Arteriovenous Haemofiltration

A Review of the Evidence in Poisoned Patients

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Anton AH. Increasing activity of sulfonamides with displacing agents. Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 226: 273–292, 1973

  2. Basile C, DiMaggio A, Curino E, Scatizzi A. Pharmacokinetics of netilmicin in hypertonic hemodiafiltration and standard hemodialysis. Clinical Nephrology 24: 305–309, 1985

  3. Bennett WM, Aronoff GR, Golper TA, Morrison G, Singer I, et al. Drug prescribing in renal failure: dosing guidelines for adults, 1st ed. American College of Physicians, Philadelphia, 1987

  4. Blye E, Lorch J, Cortell S. Extracorporeal therapy in the treatment of intoxication. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 3: 321–338, 1984

  5. Colton CK, Henderson LW, Ford CA, Lysaght MJ. Kinetics of hemodiafiltration. I. In vitro transport characteristics of a hollow fiber blood ultrafilter. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 85: 355–371, 1975

  6. Cutler RE, Forland SC, St John Hammond PG, Evans JR. Extracorporeal removal of drugs and poisons by hemodialysis and hemoperfusion. Annual Reviews of Pharmacology and Toxicology 27: 169–191, 1987

  7. Dayton PG, Israili ZH, Perel JM. Influence of binding on drug metabolism and distribution. Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 226: 172–194, 1973

  8. Domoto DT, Brown WM, Bruggensmith P. Removal of toxic levels on N-acetylprocainamide with continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration or continuous arteriovenous hemodiafiltration. Annals of Internal Medicine 106: 550–552, 1987

  9. Frigon RP, Leypoldt JK, Alford MF, Uyeji S, Hendersen LW. Hemofilter solute sieving is not governed by dynamically polarized protein. Transactions — American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 30: 486–490, 1984

  10. Gelfand MC, Winchester JF. Hemoperfusion in drug overdose: a technique when conservative management is not sufficient. Clinical Toxicology 17: 583–602, 1980

  11. Geronemus R, Schneider N. Continuous arteriovenous hemodialysis: a new modality for treatment of acute renal failure. Transactions — American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 30: 610–613, 1984

  12. Gibson TP. Problems in designing hemodialysis drug studies. Pharmacotherapy 5: 23–29, 1985

  13. Golper TA. Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration in acute renal failure. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 6: 373–386, 1985

  14. Golper TA, Pulliam J, Bennett WM. Removal of therapeutic drugs by continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration. Archives of Internal Medicine 145: 1651–1652, 1985a

  15. Golper TA, Ronco C, Kaplan AA. Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration: improvements, modifications and future directions. Seminars in Dialysis 1: 50–54, 1988

  16. Golper TA, Saad AM. Gentamicin and phenytoin in vitro sieving characteristics through polysulfone hemofilters: effect of flow rate, drug concentration and solvent systems. Kidney International 30: 937–943, 1986

  17. Golper TA, Wedel SK, Kaplan AA, Saad A-M, Donta ST, et al. Drug removal during continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration: theory and clinical observations. International Journal of Artificial Organs 8: 307–312, 1985b

  18. Gulyassy PF, Depner TA. Impaired binding of drugs and endogenous ligands in renal disease. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 2: 578–601, 1983

  19. Gwilt PR, Perrier D. Plasma protein binding and distribution characteristics of drugs as indices of their haemodialyzability. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 24: 154–161, 1978

  20. Haas T, Gongardi G, Villeboeuf F, de Viel E, Fournier JF, et al. Plasma kinetics of small molecules during and after hemofiltration: decrease in hemofiltration efficiency related to increase in ultrafiltration rate. Clinical Nephrology 19: 193–200, 1983

  21. Hamilton R, Ford C, Colton C, Cross R, Steinmuller S, Henderson L. Blood cleansing by diafiltration in uremic dog and man. Transactions — American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 17: 259–265, 1971

  22. Heath A, Delin K, Eden E, Märtensson E, Selander D, et al. Hemoperfusion with Amberlite resin in the treatment of self poisoning. Acta Medica Scandinavica 207: 455–460, 1980

  23. Henderson LW. Hemodialysis: rationale and physical principles. In Brenner & Rector (Eds) The kidney, 1st ed., pp. 1643–1671, WB Saunders & Co. Philadelphia, 1976

  24. Henderson LW, Ford C, Colton CK, Bluemle LW, Bixler HJ. Uremic blood cleansing by diafiitration using a hollow-fiber ultrafilter. Transactions — American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 16: 107–112, 1970

  25. Henderson LW, Silverstein ME, Ford CA, Lysaght MJ. Clinical response to maintenance hemodiafiltration. Kidney International 2: S58–S63, 1975

  26. Hoy WE, Gibson TP, Rivero AJ, Jain VK, Talley TT, et al. XAD-4 resin hemoperfusion for digitoxic patients with renal failure. Kidney International 23: 79–82, 1983

  27. Kaplan AA, Longnecker RE, Folkert VW. Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration. Annals of Internal Medicine 100: 358–367, 1984

  28. Kaplan AA, Longnecker RE, Folkert VW. Continuous hemofiltration: in response. Correspondence. Annals of Internal Medicine 101: 145–146, 1984

  29. Keller F, Wilms H, Schulte G, Offerman G, Molzahn M. Effect of plasma protein binding, volume of distribution and molecular weight on the fraction of drugs eliminated by hemodialysis. Clinical Nephrology 19: 201–206, 1983

  30. Klein E, Holland FF, Eberle K. Rejection of solutes by hemofiltration membranes. ASAIO Journal 1: 15–23, 1978

  31. Kraft D, Lode H. Elimination of ampicillin and gentamicin by hemofiltration. Klinische Wochenschrift 57: 195–196, 1979

  32. Kramer P, Wigger W, Rieger J, Matthaei D, Scheler F. Arteriovenous hemofiltration: a new and simple method for treatment of overhydrated patients resistant to diuretics. Klinische Wochenschrift 55: 1121–1122, 1977

  33. Kronfol N, Lau A. Tobramycin binds to the filter membrane during CAVH. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Acute Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy, Ft. Lauderdale, March, 1987. Abstract, p. 217, 1987

  34. Kronfol NO, Lau AH, Colon-Rivera J, Libertin CL. Effect of CAVH membrane types on drug-sieving coefficients and clearances. Transactions — American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 22: 85–87, 1986

  35. Lau AH, Libertin CR, Pyle K, Kronfol NO. Removal of cephalosporins by continuous hemofiltration. International Journal of Artificial Organs, in press, 1988

  36. Leypoldt JK, Frigon RP, Henderson LW. Dextran sieving coefficients of hemofilter membranes. Transactions — American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 29: 678–683, 1983

  37. Leypoldt JK, Frigon RP, Henderson LW. Macromolecular charge affects hemofilter solute sieving. Transactions — American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 32: 384–387, 1986

  38. Lysaght MJ. An experimental model for the ultrafiltration of sodium ion from blood or plasma. Blood Purification 1: 25–30, 1983

  39. McNamara PJ, Lalka D, Gibaldi M. Endogenous accumulation products and serum protein binding in uremia. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 98: 740, 1981

  40. Paganini EP, Hague J, Whitman G, Nakamoto S. Amino acid balance in patients with oliguric renal failure undergoing slow continuous ultrafiltration (SCUF). Transactions — American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 28: 615–620, 1982

  41. Paganini EP, O’Hara P, Nakamoto S. Slow continuous ultrafiltration in hemodialysis resistant oliguric acute renal failure patients. Transactions — American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 30: 173–177, 1984

  42. Pauls A, Grigoleit H-G, Von Herrath D, Schaefer K. Sequential plasma filtration, alteration of plasma hemofiltration, and dialysis for drug removal. (Abstract.) Artificial Organs 5: 54, 1981

  43. Pauls A, Grigoleit H-G, Von Herrath D, Schaefer K. Comparison of drug elimination by current methods of blood purification. Blood Purification 2: 14–22, 1984

  44. Reidenberg MM. The binding of drugs to plasma proteins and the interpretation of measurements of plasma concentration of drugs in patients with poor renal function. American Journal of Medicine 62: 460–470, 1977

  45. Reidenberg MM, Affrime M. Influence of disease on binding of drugs to plasma proteins. Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences 226: 115–126, 1973

  46. Röckel A, Gilge U, Liewald A, Heidland A. Elimination of low molecular weight proteins during hemofiltration. Artificial Organs 6: 307–311, 1982

  47. Ronco C, Brendolan A, Borin D, Bragantini L, Fabris A, et al. Permeability characteristics of polysulfonic membranes in CAVH. In Sieberth & Mann (Eds) Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH), pp. 59–63, Karger, Basel, 1985

  48. Rosansky SJ, Richards F. A comparison of hemodialysis, hemoperfusion and combined HD-HP for treatment of procainamide poisoning. (Abstract.) Kidney International 25: 191, 1984

  49. Rumpf KW, Rieger J, Ansorg R, Doht B, Scheler F. Binding of antibiotics by dialysis membranes and its clinical relevance. Proceedings of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association 14: 607–609, 1978

  50. Rumpf KW, Rieger J, Doht B, Ansorg R, Scheler F. Drug elimination by hemofiltration. Journal of Dialysis 1: 677–688, 1977

  51. Sigler MH, Teehan BP. Solute transport in continuous hemodialysis: a new treatment for acute renal failure. Kidney International 32: 562–571, 1987

  52. Suh B, Craig WA, England AC, Elliot RL. Effect of the free fatty acids on protein binding of antimicrobial agents. Journal of Infectious Diseases 143: 609–616, 1981

  53. Tillement JP, Lhoste F, Fuidicelli TF. Diseases and drug protein binding Clinical Pharmacokinetics 3: 144–154, 1978

  54. Tilstone WJ, Winchester JF, Reavey PC. The use of pharmacokinetic principles in determining the effectiveness of removal of toxins from blood. Clinical Pharmacology 4: 23–37, 1979

  55. Vanholder R, Van Landschoot N, De Smet R, Schouts A, Ringoir S. Drug protein binding in chronic renal failure: evaluation of nine drugs. Kidney International 33: 996–1004, 1988

  56. Winchester JF. Hemoperfusion. In Drukker et al. (Eds) Replacement of renal function, 2nd ed., pp. 305–322, Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, 1983

  57. Winchester JF, Gelfand MC, Knepshield JH, Schreiner GE. Dialysis and hemoperfusion of poisons and drugs — update. Transactions — American Society for Artificial Internal Organs 23: 762–842, 1977

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Dr Thomas A. Golper.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Golper, T.A., Bennett, W.M. Drug Removal by Continuous Arteriovenous Haemofiltration. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp 3, 341–349 (1988).

Download citation


  • Drug Removal
  • Ultrafiltration Rate
  • Drug Protein Binding
  • Sieve Coefficient
  • Intrinsic Membrane Property