Advertisement

Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Poliomyelitis Vaccination

What Are the Options?

  • 6 Accesses

  • 2 Citations

Summary

Two vaccines are available to prevent poliomyelitis. They are inactivated poliovirus administered by injection (IPV, also known as Salk vaccine) and live attenuated poliovirus administered orally (OPV, also known as Sabin vaccine). The World Health Organization recommends OPV, because it suppresses the circulation of wild poliovirus and is relatively inexpensive. About 80% of the world’s children in the first year of life have been fed OPV and wild poliovirus is now disappearing from the world. It has been entirely eradicated from the Western Hemisphere, so that presently there are no cases in the region and wild poliovirus can no longer be found.

The single drawback of OPV is the occurrence of about 1 case of vaccine-associated poliomyelitis per 106 doses distributed. IPV does not have this deficiency, and is still used in a few countries. A combination of IPV and OPV is used in Denmark, Israel, Gaza and the West Bank with excellent results (no polio cases and no circulation of wild virus), but this vaccine combination boosts the costs of polio immunisation. However, once the virus can no longer be detected in the world, a combination of IPV and OPV can be used for a short period to finish the job and the world can save millions of dollars each year by stopping vaccination, for there will be no wild poliovirus remaining.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Melnick JL, Ashkenazi A, Midulla VC, et al. Immunogenic potency of MgCl2-stabilized oral poliovaccine. JAMA 1963; 185: 406–8

  2. 2.

    Melnick JL. Thermostability of poliovirus, measles, and hepatitis B vaccines. Vaccine Res 1995; 4: 1–9

  3. 3.

    Rong W, Georgescu M, Delpeyroux F, et al. Thermostabilization of live virus vaccines by heavy water (D2O). Vaccine 1995; 13: 1058–63

  4. 4.

    Melnick JL. Live attenuated poliovaccines. In: Plotkin SA, Mortimer EA Jr, editors. Vaccines. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1990: 155–204

  5. 5.

    Wright PF, Kim-Farley RJ, de Quadros CA, et al. Strategies for the global eradication of poliomyelitis by the year 2000. N Engl J Med 1991; 325: 1774–9

  6. 6.

    Melnick JL. Enteroviruses: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses. In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Chanock RM, et al., editors. Field’s virology. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press, 1990: 549–605

  7. 7.

    Salk J, Drucker JA, Malvy D. Noninfectious poliovirus vaccine. In: Plotkin SA, Mortimer EA Jr, editors. Vaccines. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1990: 205–27

  8. 8.

    van Wezel AL, van Steenis G, van der Marel P, et al. Inactivated poliovirus vaccine: current production methods and new developments. Rev Infect Dis 1984; 6Suppl. 2: S335–40

  9. 9.

    WHO EPI Global Advisory Group. Summary of conclusions and recommendations. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 1985; 60: 13–6

  10. 10.

    Sabin AB. Perspectives on rapid elimination and ultimate global eradication of paralytic poliomyelitis caused by polioviruses. Eur J Epidemiol 1991; 7: 95–120

  11. 11.

    Lemon SM, Robertson SE. Global eradication of poliomyelitis: recent progress, future prospects, and new research priorities. Prog Med Virol 1991; 38: 42–55

  12. 12.

    De Quadros CA, Andrus JK, Olive J-M, et al. Eradication of poliomyelitis: progress in the Americas. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1991; 10: 222–9

  13. 13.

    Jamison DT, Torres AM, Chen LC, et al. Poliomyelitis: what are the prospects for eradication and rehabilitation? Health Policy Plan 1991; 6: 107–18

  14. 14.

    Melnick JL. Poliomyelitis: eradication in sight? Epidemiol Inf 1992; 108: 1–18

  15. 15.

    Sabin AB. Paralytic poliomyelitis: old dogmas and new perspectives. Rev Infect Dis 1981; 3: 543–64

  16. 16.

    Tulchinsky TH, Handsher R, Melnick JL, et al. Immune status to various strains of wild poliovirus among children in Gaza immunized with live attenuated oral vaccine alone compared with a combination of live and inactivated vaccines. J Viral Dis 1994; 1: 5–13

  17. 17.

    Von Magnus H, Petersen I. Vaccination with inactivated poliovirus vaccine and oral poliovirus vaccine in Denmark. Rev Infect Dis 1984; 6: S471–4

  18. 18.

    Slater PE, Orenstein WA, Morag A, et al. Poliomyelitis outbreak in Israel in 1988: a report with two commentaries. Lancet 1990; 335: 1192–8

  19. 19.

    Lasch E, Abed Y, Abdulla K, et al. Successful results of a program combining live and inactivated poliovirus vaccines to control poliomyelitis in Gaza. Rev Infect Dis 1984; 6: S467–S470

  20. 20.

    Faden H, Modlin JF, Thomas ML, et al. Comparative evaluation of immunization with live attenuated and enhanced-potency inactivated trivalent poliovirus vaccines in childhood: systemic and local immune responses. J Infect Dis 1990; 162: 1291–7

  21. 21.

    Patriarca PA, Wright PF, John TJ. Factors affecting the immunogenicity of oral poliovirus vaccine in developing countries: review. Rev Infect Dis 1991; 13: 926–39

  22. 22.

    Almond JW. The attenuation of poliovirus neurovirulence. Annu Rev Microbiol 1987; 41: 153–80

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Dr Joseph L. Melnick.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Melnick, J.L. Poliomyelitis Vaccination. Clin. Immunother. 6, 1–6 (1996). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03259348

Download citation

Keywords

  • Poliomyelitis
  • Vaccine Recipient
  • Oral Poliovirus Vaccine
  • Inactivate Poliovirus Vaccine
  • Paralytic Poliomyelitis