Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy

, Volume 15, Issue 3, pp 177–180 | Cite as

Development of Cocaine-Induced Interstitial Lung Damage in Two CYP2C and VKORC1 Variant Allele Carriers

  • Petal A.H.M. Wijnen
  • Otto Bekers
  • Marjolein Drent
Case Report


Background: Often, the connection between drug use and the development of related inflammatory damage or idiosyncratic toxicities is hard to recognize and objectify. The presence of cytochrome P450 (CYP) variant genotypes appears to be a substantial susceptibility risk factor in the development of drug-induced pulmonary adverse events. We hypothesized that the presence of variant alleles may be associated with serious complications of illicit drug use.

Case Report: We report the cases of two cocaine users who developed a ‘flu-like’ syndrome with diffuse interstitial infiltrates after cocaine abuse. Genotyping for CYP (CYP2C9, CYP2C19) and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex 1 (VKORC1) allelic variants (−1639G/A and 1173C/T) was performed in these two patients. Both cases were heterozygous for VKORC1 variant alleles, and both possessed a CYP2C polymorphism (case 1: CYP2C19*1/*2; case 2: CYP2C9*1/*3).

Conclusions: The described drug abuse cases suggest that an association between the presence of CYP2C and VKORC1 allelic variants and cocaine-induced interstitial lung damage is highly likely. It is assumed that these polymorphisms contribute to intra-individual variability in drug response and toxicity, including cocaine response and toxicity. Moreover, the importance of including pharmacogenomics in the work-up of patients with suspected drug-induced (lung) toxicity, such as alveolar hemorrhage, is highlighted by these cases.



The authors have no conflicts of interest to report. The study was performed without funding.


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© Adis Data Information BV 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petal A.H.M. Wijnen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Otto Bekers
    • 1
    • 2
  • Marjolein Drent
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Clinical ChemistryMaastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC)Maastrichtthe Netherlands
  2. 2.interstitial lung disease (ild) care consultancyBC Maastrichtthe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Respiratory MedicineMUMCMaastrichtthe Netherlands

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