Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 227–238 | Cite as

Biomarkers of Lymphatic Function and Disease

State of the Art and Future Directions
  • Kenta Nakamura
  • Stanley G. RocksonEmail author
Hematologic and Lymphatic Disorders


Substantial advances have accrued over the last decade in the identification of the processes that contribute to lymphatic vascular development in health and disease. Identification of distinct regulatory milestones, from a variety of genetic models, has led to a stepwise chronology of lymphatic development. Several molecular species have been identified as important tissue biomarkers of lymphatic development and function. At present, vascular endothelial growth-factor receptor (VEGFR)-3/VEGF-C/VEGF-D signaling has proven useful in the identification of clinical lymphatic metastatic potential and the assessment of cancer prognosis. Similar biomarkers, to be utilized as surrogates for the assessment of inherited and acquired diseases of the lymphatic circulation, are actively sought, and will represent a signal advance in biomedical investigation.


Lymphatic Vessel Lymphedema Lymphatic Endothelial Cell Lymphatic Capillary Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Family 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest that are directly relevant to the content of this review.


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© Adis Data Information BV 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Center for Lymphatic and Venous DisordersStanford University School of MedicineStanfordUSA

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