JOM

, Volume 48, Issue 4, pp 38–44 | Cite as

Industrial-scale leadmaking with the QSL continuous oxygen converter

  • Paul E. Queneau
  • Andreas Siegmund
Review of Extraction & Processing

References

  1. 1.
    Proceedings Eleventh International Lead Conference (London: Lead Development Association, 1993).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vincent Rich, The International Lead Trade (Cambridge, England: Woodhead Publishing, 1994).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    “Prospects for Lead and Zinc Look Brighter,” Metal Bulletin (20 February 1995), p. 8.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Paul E. Queneau and Samuel W. Marcuson, “Oxygen Pyrometallurgy at Copper Cliff—A Half Century of Progress,” JOM (January 1996), pp. 14–21.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    P.J. Mackey and J.K. Brimacombe, “Savard and Lee—Transforming the Metallurgical Landscape,” Savard-Lee International Symposium on Bath Smelting, ed. J.K. Brimacombe, P.J. Mackey, G.J. Kor, C. Bickert, and M.G. Ranade (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1992), pp. 137–145.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Howard Womer, “Continuous Smelting and Refining by WORCRA Processes,” Advances in Extractive Metallurgy (London: IMM, 1968).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Paul E. Queneau and R. Schuhmann, Jr., “TheQ-S Oxygen Process,” JOM (August 1974), pp. 14–16.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Staff Reporter, “St. Joe Mineral Corp. Has Exclusive Option on New Lead Process,” The Wall Street Journal (22 February 1974).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Paul E. Queneau, “The QSL Reactor for Lead and its Prospects for Cu, Ni and Fe,” JOM (Dec. 1989), pp. 30–35.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    R. Schuhmann, Jr., Pei-Cheh Chen, P. Palanisamy, and D.H.R. Sarma, “Thermodynamics of Converting Lead Sulfide,” Metall Trans, 7B (1976), pp. 95–101.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Paul E. Queneau, “Oxygen Technology and Conservation,” Metall Trans., 8B (3) (1977), pp. 357–369.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    W.H. Schwartz, P. Fischer, P.E. Queneau and R. Schuhmann, Jr., “QSL—A Continuous Process for Environmentally Clean Lead Production,” Lead-Zinc-Tin ′80 World Symposium, ed. J.M. Cigan, T.S. Mackey, and T.J. O′Keefe (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1980), pp. 394–406.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. Fischer and H. Maczek, “Present Status—QSL Lead Process,” JOM, 34 (6) (1982), pp. 60–64.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P. Fischer, “The QSL Process,” Sulfide Smelting International Symposium, ed. H.Y. Sohn, D.B. George, and A.D. Zunkel (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1983), pp. 513–527.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Schuhmann, Jr., “Measurement, Interpretation and Control of Oxygen Activity,” Reinhart Schuhmann International Symposium on Innovative Technology and Reactor Design in Extraction Metallurgy, ed. D.R. Gaskell, J.P. Hager, J.E. Hoffmann, and P.J. Mackey (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1986), pp. 43–63.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P.J. Mackey, “Oxygen in Nonferrous Metallurgical Processes,” Impact of Oxygen on Productivity, ed. G. Kachaniwsky and C. Newman (Toronto, Canada: CIM, Pergamon, 1987), pp. 1–30.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K.M. Iyer and H.Y. Sohn, “Mass Transfer Analysis for Pyrometallurgical Channel Reactors with High-Strength Bottom Gas Injection,” Paul E. Queneau International Symposium—Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, Nickel and Cobalt, vol. 1, ed. R.G. Reddy and R.N. Weizenbach (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1993).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.R. Schneidesch, H.J. Richter, and P.E. Queneau, “Mixing and Settling in a QSOP Oxygen Reactor,” Reinhart Schuhmann International Symposium on Innovative Technology and Reactor Design in Extraction Metallurgy, ed. D.R. Gaskell, J.P. Hager, J.E. Hoffmann, and P.J. Mackey (Warrendale,PA: TMS, 1986), pp. 43–63.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H.J. Richter, J.T. Laaspere, and J.M. Fitzpatrick, “Experimental and Numerical Modeling of Mixing and Settling in Continuous Metal Production,” Metallurgical Processes for the Early Twenty-First Century, vol. 1, ed. Hong Yong Sohn (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1994), pp. 859–878.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Paul E. Queneau, “The Coppermaking QS Continuous Oxygen Converter—Technology, Design and Offspring,” Paul E. Queneau International Symposium—Extractive Metallurgy of Copper, Nickel and Cobalt, vol. 1, eds. R.G. Reddy and R.N. Weizenbach (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1993).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R.I. Guthrie, H.C. Lee, and Y. Sahai, “On the Formation of Thermal Accretions (Mushrooms) in Steelmaking Vessels,” Savard-Lee International Symposium on Bath Smelting, ed. J.K. Brimacombe, P.J. Mackey, G.J. Kor, C. Bickert, and M.G. Ranade (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1992), pp. 445–462.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    R.H. Essenhigh, “Fundamentals of Coal Combustion,” Chemistry of Coal Utilization, ed. M.A. Elliott (New York: Wiley, 1981).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    F.J. Ceely and E.L. Daman, “Combustion Process Technology,” Chemistry of Coal Utilization, ed. M.A. Elliott (New York: Wiley, 1981).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Proceedings of Nineteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Pittsburgh, PA: Combustion Institute, 1982).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. Mager and A. Schulte, “Commercial QSL Plants,” Lead Processing Symposium, ed. M.L. Jaeck (Toronto, Canada: CIM, Pergamon, 1989), pp. 3–14.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. Arthur, A. Siegmund, and M. Schmidt, “Operating Experience with QSL Submerged Bath Smelting for Production of Lead Bullion,” Savard-Lee International Symposium on Bath Smelting, ed. J.K. Brimacombe, P.J. Mackey, G.J. Kor, C. Bickert, and M.G. Ranade (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1992), pp. 127–145.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    L. Deininger, K.C. Choi, and A. Siegmund, “Operating Experience with the QSL-Plants in Germany and Korea,” EPD Congress 1994, ed. G.W. Warren (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1994), pp. 477–501Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    K.C. Choi, H.J. Kim, and Y.H. Lee, “The New QSL Lead Smelter at Korea′s Zinc Onsan Plant,” Metallurgical Processes for the Early Twenty-First Century, vol. 1, ed. Hong Yong Sohn (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1994), pp. 317–331.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Y.H. Lee and C.Y. Choi, “Behavior of Lead and Impurities in QSL Lead Smelting,” Zinc & Lead ′95, ed. T. Azakami, N. Masuko, J.E. Dutrizac, and E. Ozberk (Sendai, Japan: MMPI of Japan and CIM, 1995), pp. 270–279.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    “Recent Metallurgical Plants,” Mining Magazine (London: August 1995).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    M.J. Walker, D.R. Reynolds, and G.W. Lee, “The New Cominco Lead Smelter at Trail,” Lead and Zinc ′90, ed. T.S. Mackey and R.D. Prengaman (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1990), pp. 919–932.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J.R. Boldt and Paul E. Queneau, “Postscript,” The Winning of Nickel (Toronto, Canada: Van Nostrand, 1967).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    J.G. Eacott, “The Role of Oxygen Potential and Use of Tonnage Oxygen in Copper Smelting,” Advances in Sulfide Melting, vol. 2, ed. H.Y. Sohn, D.B. George, and A.D. Zunkel (Warrendale, PA: TMS, 1983), pp. 583–634.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© TMS 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul E. Queneau
    • 1
  • Andreas Siegmund
    • 2
  1. 1.Thayer School of EngineeringDartmouth CollegeUSA
  2. 2.Metallurgy DivisionLurgi GmbHFrankfurtGermany

Personalised recommendations