, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 46–49 | Cite as

Bismuth—Production, properties, and applications

  • Funsho K. Ojebuoboh
1992 Review of Extractive Metallurgy


Bismuth, the most metallic element in group V A of the periodic table, is primarily a by-product of lead refining. It is also a by-product of several ore-dressing operations, especially high-grade scheelite and wolframite ores. It is generally recovered by processing lead electrorefining slimes, Kroll-Betterton dross, and other process residues which contain bismuth. No matter the source, it is refined to virgin metal with chlorine. Bismuth’s unique properties make it attractive for a plethora of applications such as alloying additives in steel and aluminum, fusible alloys, and pharmaceuticals. Recent awareness of the “green” nature of bismuth in free-machining steels and similar applications has made it a potential substitute for metals deemed less favorable environmentally.


Bismuth BiOCl Process Residue Bismuthinite Bismuth Citrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© TMS 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Funsho K. Ojebuoboh
    • 1
  1. 1.Asarco in Salt Lake CityUtahUSA

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