Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Refractory metals in submicron IC architecture

  • 31 Accesses

  • 1 Citations


Materials traditionally used in integrated circuits have limitations as those circuits reach submicron design rules. Refractory metals have found their place in very-large-scale-integration device technologies, and an experimental program involving the use of tungsten as a gate material has been undertaken, with special emphasis on purity requirements. Bias temperature stress capacitance-voltage measurements show that very low levels of mobile ion contamination can be obtained in metal oxide semiconductor capacitors with tungsten gates sputtered from a special high-purity target.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1.

    R.S. Blewer and V.A. Wells, Proc. of IEEE V-MIC (1984), p. 153.

  2. 2.

    G.C. Smith and R.B. Jucha, Proc. of IEEE V-MIC (1986), p. 403.

  3. 3.

    S.J. Hillenius and W.T. Lynch, Proceedings of the IEEE ICCD (1985), p. 147.

  4. 4.

    N. Yamamoto, H. Kume, S. Iwata, K. Yagi, N. Kobayashi, N. Mori and H. Miyasaki, J. Electrochem. Soc., 133 (1986), p. 401.

  5. 5.

    N. Kasai, N. Endo and A. Ishitani, IEDM 1988 Digest, p. 242.

  6. 6.

    E.H. Snow, A.S. Grove, B.E. Deal and C.T. Sah, J. Appl. Phys., 36 (1965), p. 1664.

  7. 7.

    E.H. Nicollian and J.R. Brews, MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductor) Physics and Technology (Wiley-Interscience, 1982), p. 780.

  8. 9.

    S.R. Hofstein, IEEE Trans. Elec. Dev., ED14 (1967), p. 794.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Diesburg, D.E., Castel, E.D. Refractory metals in submicron IC architecture. JOM 41, 23–26 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03220245

Download citation


  • Refractory Metal
  • Static Random Access Memory
  • Diffusion Barrier Layer
  • Gate Material
  • Metal Oxide Semiconductor Capacitor