Aorto-bronchial fistula after implantation of a self-expanding bronchial stent in a patient with aortic dissection
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We report a case of aorto-bronchial fistula after implantation of a self-expanding stent into the left main bronchus compressed by a dissected descending aorta. A 66-year-old female, who underwent Stanford type-B aortic dissection two years previously, was admitted to our hospital for the treatment of a newly developed false lumen that originated from the ascending aorta and extended to the aortic bifurcation. She was unable to be weaned from the respirator after the graft replacement of the ascending aorta. Fiberoptic bronchoscopic examination revealed complete obstruction of the left main bronchus by extrinsic compression. A self-expanding nitinol stent was implanted in the left main bronchus five days after the operation. Her respiratory condition improved remarkably, allowing her to be successfully weaned from the respirator. Her clinical course was uneventful until she suddenly died from massive hemoptysis 20 days after stent implantation. A communication of 5 mm in diameter between the dissected descending aorta and the left main bronchus was seen at autopsy. Permanent application of a self-expanding nitinol stent to relieve extrinsic compression of a left main bronchus by a dissected descending aorta is not recommended because pressure necrosis might lead to fatal aorto-bronchial fistula.
Index wordsaortic dissection aorto-bronchial fistula self-expanding stent
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