Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Solid solubility metastable extension of some transition metals in gold

  • 537 Accesses

  • 1 Citations


The metastable extended solid solubilities of the transition metals Ti, Zr, Hf, W, Re, Ru and Rh in gold have been studied by measuring the lattice parameters of their gold-rich solid solutions using X-ray diffraction. The cooling rate used for the preparation of the alloys was about 106 K/s. It was found that the metastable solid solubilities of Ti, Zr and Hf in gold were 18. 2, 13. 0, and 13. 4 at% respectively, but that those of W, Re, Ru, and Rh in gold were negligible. It is concluded that metastable extension of the solid solubilities of transition metals in gold is relative to the nature of the phase diagrams of their alloys with gold. Under conditions of rapid solidification, the alloys with upper-peritectic-type phase diagrams had significant solid solubility extensions and the alloys with monotectic-type phase diagrams displayed little solid solubility extension. Mechanical alloying may be more effective in producing metastable solid solutions of these alloys.


  1. 1

    Z. Xinming and L. Qubo,Gold Bull., 1997,30, 63

  2. 2

    T. B. Massalski, ‘Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams’, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1987

  3. 3

    W. B. Pearson, ‘The Crystal Chemistry and Physics of Metals and Alloys’, John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, 1972

  4. 4

    P. Pietroknowsky,J. Inst. Metals, 1961–62,90, 434

  5. 5

    N. Yuantao and Z. Xinming,J. Alloys and Compounds, 1992,182, 131

  6. 6

    D. Deng and Y. Xu,Precious Metals, 1993,14, 22 (in Chinese)

Download references

Author information

Additional information

Professor Zhou Xinming is currently a Research Fellow in the Institute of Precious Metals, Kunming, Yunnan, China. He has made many original contributions in the field of precious metals alloy materials, including high purity gold alloys for the electronics industry. He has also carried out substantial research on metastable alloys.

Li Qubo is a Senior Engineer and a member of Professor Zhou's research group. His recent research has been concerned with gold and gold alloys, including their use in the microelectronics industry.

Rights and permissions

This article is published under an open access license. Please check the 'Copyright Information' section for details of this license and what re-use is permitted. If your intended use exceeds what is permitted by the license or if you are unable to locate the licence and re-use information, please contact the Rights and Permissions team.

About this article

Cite this article

Qubo, L., Xinming, Z. Solid solubility metastable extension of some transition metals in gold. Gold Bull 31, 30–32 (1998). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03215474

Download citation


  • Phase Diagram
  • Mechanical Alloy
  • Solid Solubility
  • Rapid Solidification
  • Gold Bulletin