Advertisement

Gold Bulletin

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 112–122 | Cite as

The development of 990 gold — titanium: Its production, use and properties

  • Geoffrey Gafner
Open Access
Article

Abstract

Pure gold with only one per cent of titanium may well be the only significantly different new jewellery and coinage alloy developed in recent times. In this paper, an account is given of the development of a 990 fineness gold alloy with good colour, durability and mechanical properties, and why titanium was chosen as the alloying metal. Methods are described for the alloy’s production, solutionizing and age-hardening. Mechanical properties are given as a function of deformation, age-hardening time and temperature for three different starting states. These properties are compared with those of some standard 14 and 18 carat jewellery alloys and pure gold.

Keywords

Pure Gold Salb Boric Oxide Gold Share Relative Wear Resistance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Engelhard Industries, U.S. Patents 2947114 (1960), 2984894 (1961), 3049577 (1962), 3201236 (1965), 3606766 (1971)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.L. Gimpel and N. Fuschillo,J. Met., 1971,33(6), 39Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    N. Fuschillo and M.L. Gimpel,J. Mater. Sci., 1970,5(12), 1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Poniatowski and M. Clasing,Gold Bull., 1972,5(2), 14Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.S. Hill,Gold Bull., 1976,9(3), 76–80Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H-H. Beyer, M. Clasing & H. Heidsiek, Report by Degussa on research co-sponsored by the International Gold Corporation Ltd., August, 1982Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Degussa AG, German Patent DE 040981 (1983)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    H. Heidsiek, V. Naumann & G. Ondracek, 11th Int. Plansee Seminar, 1985,1, 575–585 andInt. J. of Powder Metallurgy, 1986,22, 113–117Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Private Communication, J. Lai, 1983Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Okamoto and T.B. Massalski, Preprint of: ASM/NBS Monographs Series on Binary Phase Diagram Evaluations, Nos. 1 and 2,Gold-Based Binary Alloy Phase Diagrams Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ch. J. Raub & D. Ott, Sponsored Research Report by the Forschungsinstitut für Edelmetalle und Metallchemie (FEM) to the International Gold Corporation Ltd., May, 1984Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ch.J. Raub, Consultancy Report by the FEM to the International Gold Corporation Ltd., September, 1986Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.B. Guy & G.Humpston, Report on research co-sponsored by General Electric Research Ltd. (Hirst Research Centre) and the International Gold Corporation Ltd., November 1986Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ch.J. Raub & D.Ott, Sponsored Research Report by the FEM to the International Gold Corporation Ltd., May, 1985Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gold Alloy Data,Aurum No. 14, 1983, 141–44Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Ramoni,Aurum No. 6, 1981, 23–29Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gold Alloy Data,Aurum No. 1, 1980, 22–25Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gold Alloy Data,Aurum No. 2, 1980, 15–18Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gold Alloy Data,Aurum No. 3, 1980, 15–18Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gold Alloy Data,Aurum No. 5, 1981, 20–23Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Duduco Data Book, 2nd Edition, October, 1983, p58Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Heidsiek and M. Clasing,Gold Bull., 1983,16, 76–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Hausselt and U. Mürrle, Test Report to the FEM, May, 1985Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J. Hausselt and U. Mürrle, Test Report to the International Gold Corporation Ltd., November, 1986Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ch.J. Raub and H. Weiss, Consultancy Report by the FEM to the International Gold Corporation Ltd., August, 1985Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. Taylor,Aurum No. 6, 1981, 46–50Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ch.J. Raub and D. Ott, Sponsored Research Report by the FEM to the International Gold Corporation Ltd., September, 1986Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ch.J, Raub and D. Ott, Sponsored Research Report by the FEM to the International Gold Corporation Ltd., December, 1985Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Gafner, International Gold Corporation Ltd., Federal Republic of Germany Patent P35 02 914.5, 1985Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M.Graham, 31st Annual EMSA Meeting, 1980, 148–9Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A.J. Rossi, Titanium Alloy Manufacturing Co. of New York, U.S. Patent 1023334, 1912Google Scholar

Copyright information

© World Gold Council 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geoffrey Gafner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations