This paper examines where problems of shipping policy jurisdiction between international, supra-national and national levels have occurred. These range across the issues of public goods — safety, security and environment— and show up inadequacies in the current shipping policy-making processes. New frameworks — commonly termed “polycentric governance” and “multi-level governance”— sensitive to the complexities of the maritime industry and its associated political structure urgently need to be adopted. The paper is based upon research work recently carried out across the European Union supported by a number of publications and will include examples from Greece, the United Kingdom, Spain, France and also the new member states. Suggestions for improvements in policy-making structures will be made and recommendations put forward for consideration by policy-makers in the maritime sector at all jurisdictional levels
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Roe, M.S. Safety, security, the environment and shipping: The problem of making effective policies. WMU J Marit Affairs 7, 263–279 (2008). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03195135