Journal of Applied Genetics

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 39–48

The multigene family of fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs): Function, structure and polymorphism

Review Article


Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are members of the superfamily of lipid-binding proteins (LBP). So far 9 different FABPs, with tissue-specific distribution, have been identified: L (liver), I (intestinal), H (muscle and heart), A (adipocyte), E (epidermal), Il (ileal), B (brain), M (myelin) and T (testis). The primary role of all the FABP family members is regulation of fatty acid uptake and intracellular transport. The structure of all FABPs is similar — the basic motif characterizing these proteins is β-barrel, and a single ligand (e.g. a fatty acid, cholesterol, or retinoid) is bound in its internal water-filled cavity. Despite the wide variance in the protein sequence, the gene structure is identical. The FABP genes consist of 4 exons and 3 introns and a few of them are located in the same chromosomal region. For example,A-FABP, E-FABP andM-FABP create a gene cluster. Because of their physiological properties some FABP genes were tested in order to identify mutations altering lipid metabolism. Furthermore, the porcineA-FABP andH-FABP were studied as candidate genes with major effect on fatness traits.

Key words

fatty acid-binding protein genes FABP fatness 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amri E-Z, Ailhaud G, Grimaldi P-A, 1994. Fatty acids as signal transducing molecules: involvement in the differentiation of preadipose to adipose cells. J Lipid Research 35: 930–937.Google Scholar
  2. Amri EZ, Bertrand B, Ailhaud G, Grimaldi P, 1991. Regulation of adipose cell differentiation. I. Fatty acids are inducers of the aP2 gene expression. J Lipid Res 32: 1449–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baier LJ, Sacchettini JC, Knowler WC, Eads J, Paolisso G, Tataranni PA, et al. 1995. An amino acid substitution in the human intestinal fatty acid binding protein is associated with increased fatty acid binding, increased fat oxidation, and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 95: 1281–1287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Balendiran GK, Schnutgen F, Scapin G, Borchers T, Xhong N, Lim K, et al. 2000. Crystal structure and thermodynamic analysis of human brain fatty acid-binding protein. J Biol Chem 275: 27045–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernlohr DA, Coe NR, Simpson MA, Hertzel AV, 1997. Regulation of gene expression in adipose cells by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Adv Exp Med Biol 422: 145–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Birkenmeier EH, Rowe LB, Crossman MW, Gordon JI, 1994. Ileal lipid-binding protein (Illbp) gene maps to mouse chromosome 1 1. Mamm Genome 5: 805–806.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bisgrove DA, Monckton EA, Packer M, Godbout R, 2000. Regulation of brain fatty acid-binding protein expression by differential phosphorylation of nuclear factor I in malignant glioma cell lines. J Biol Chem 275: 30668–30676.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bleck B, Hohoff C, Binas B, Rustow B, Dixkens C, Hameister H, et al. 1998. Cloning and chromosomal localisation of the murine epidermal-type fatty acid binding protein gene (Fabpe). Gene 215: 123–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonne A, Gosele C, den Bieman M, Gillissen G, Kreitler T, Pravenec M, et al. 2003. Sequencing and chromosomal localization of Fabp6 and an intronless Fabp6 segment in the rat. Mol Biol Rep 30: 173–176.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Brouillette C, Bosse Y, Perusse L, Gaudet D, Vohl MC, 2004. Effect of liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP) T94A missense mutation on plasma lipoprotein responsiveness to treatment with fenofibrate. J Hum Genet 49: 424–432.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Burton PB, Hogben CE, Joannou CL, Clark AG, Hsuan JJ, Totty NF, et al. 1994. Heart fatty acid binding protein is a novel regulator of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 205: 1822–1828.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Chmurzyńska A, Mackowski M, Szyłowski M, Melonek J, Kamyczek M, Eckert R, et al. 2004. Polymorphism of intronic microsatellites in theA-FABP andLEPR genes and their association with productive traits in the pig. J Anim Feed Sci 13: 615–624.Google Scholar
  13. Clarke DC, Miskovic D, Han X-X, Calles-Escandon J, Glatz JFC, Luiken JJFP, et al. 2004. Overexpression associated fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm) in vivo increases fatty acid sarcolemmal transport and metabolism. Physiol Genomics 17: 31–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohn SM, Simon TC, Roth KA, Birkenmeier EH, Gordon JI, 1992. Use of transgenic mice to map cis-acting elements in the intestinal fatty acid binding protein gene (Fabpi) that control its cell lineage-specific and regional patterns of expression along the duodenal-colonic and crypt-villus axes of the gut epithelium. J Cell Biol 119: 27–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Corsico B, Cistola DP, Frieden C, Storch J, 1998. The helical domain of intestinal fatty acid binding protein is critical for collisional transfer of fatty acids to phospholipid membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 12174–12178.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Damcott CM, Feingold E, Moffett SP, Barmada MM, Marshall JA, Hamman RF, Ferrell RE, 2003. Variation in the FABP2 promoter alters transcriptional activity and is associated with body composition and plasma lipid levels. Hum Genet 12: 610–616.Google Scholar
  17. de Koning DJ, Janss LL, Rattink AP, van Oers PA, de Vries BJ, Groenen MA, et al. 1999. Detection of quantitative trait loci for backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content in pigs (Sus scrofa). Genetics 152: 1679–1690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Desvergne B, Wahli W, 1999. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism. Endocr Rev 20: 649–688.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Distel RJ, Robinson GS, Spiegelman BM, 1992. Fatty acid regulation of gene expression. J Biol Chem 267: 5937–5941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Distel R, Ro HS, Rosen BS, Groves D, Spiegelman BM, 1987. Nucleoprotein complexes that regulate gene expression in adipocyte differentiation: direct participation of c-fos. Cell 49: 835–844.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Duplus E, Glorian M, Forest C, 2000. Fatty acid regulation of gene transcription. J Biol Chem 275: 30749–30752.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Everts-van der Wind A, Kata SR, Band MR, Rebeiz M, Larkin DM, Everts RE, et al. 2004. A 1463 gene cattle-human comparative map with anchor points defined by human genome sequence coordinates. Genome Res 14: 1424–1437.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Feng L, Heintz N, 1995. Differentiating neurons activate transcription of the brain lipid-binding protein gene in radial glia through a novel regulatory element. Development. 121: 1719–1730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gerbens F, de Koning DJ, Harders FL, Meuwissen THE, Janss LLG, Groenen MAM, et al. 2000. The effect of adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding protein genes on intramuscular fat and backfat content inMeishan crossbred pigs. J Anim Sci 78: 552–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gerbens F, Jansen A, van Erp AJM, Harders F, Meuwissen THE, Rettenberger G, et al. 1998. The adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein locus: characterization and association with intramuscular fat content in pigs. Mamm Genome 9: 1022–1026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gerbens F, Rettenberger G, Lenstra JA, Veerkamp JH, te Pas MFW, 1997. Characterization, chromosomal localization, and genetic variation of the porcine heart fatty acid-binding protein. Mamm Genome 8: 328–331.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Gerbens F, van Erp AJM, Harders FL, Verburg FJ, Meuwissen THE, Veerkamp JH, te Pas MFW, 1999. Effect of genetic variants of the heart fatty acid-binding protein gene on intramuscular fat and performance traits in pigs. J Anim Sci 77: 846–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Glatz JFC, van der Vusse GJ, 1996. Cellular fatty acid binding proteins: their function and physiological significance. Prog Lipid Res 35: 243–282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Gong YZ, Everett ET, Schwartz DA, Norris JS, Wilson FA, 1994. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and expression of a 14-kDa bile acid-binding protein from rat ileal cytosol. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 4741–4745.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Green RP, Cohn SM, Sacchettini JC, Jackson KE, Gordon JI, 1992. The mouse intestinal fatty acid binding protein gene: nucleotide sequence, pattern of developmental and regional expression, and proposed structure of its protein product. DNA Cell Biol 11: 31–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gregoire FM, Smas CM, Sul HS, 1998. Understanding adipocyte differentiation. Physiol Rev 78: 783–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hamilton JA, 1998. Fatty acid transport: difficult or easy? J Lipid Res 39: 467–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hayasaka K, Himoro M, Takada G, Takahashi E, Minoshima S, Shimizu N, 1993. Structure and localization of the gene encoding human peripheral myelin protein 2 (PMP2). Genomics 18: 244–248.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hayasaka K, Nanao K, Tahara M, Sato W, Takada G, Miura M, Uyemura K, 1991. Isolation and sequence determination of cDNA encoding P2 protein of human peripheral myelin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 181: 204–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Herrera R, Ro HS, Robinson GS, Xanthopoulos KG, Spiegelman BM, 1989. A direct role for C/EBP and the AP-I-binding site in gene expression linked to adipocyte differentiation. Mol Cell Biol 9: 5331–5339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Hertzel AV, Bernlohr DA, 1998. Cloning and chromosomal location of the murine keratinocyte lipid-binding protein gene. Gene 221: 235–243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hertzel VA, Bernlohr DA, 2000. The mammalian fatty acid-binding protein multigene family: molecular and genetic insight into function. TEM 11: 175–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Heuckeroth RO, Birkenmeier EH, Levin MS, Gordon JI, 1987. Analysis of the tissue-specific expression, developmental regulation, and linkage relationships of a rodent gene encoding heart fatty acid binding protein. J Biol Chem 262: 9709–9717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hsu KT, Storch J, 1996. Fatty acid transfer from liver and intestinal fatty acid-binding proteins to membranes occurs by different mechanisms. J Biol Chem 271: 13317–13323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hudson TJ, Church DM, Greenaway S, Nguyen H, Cook A, Steen RG, et al. 2001. A radiation hybrid map of mouse genes. Nat Genet 29: 201–205.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hunt CR, Ro JH-S, Dobson DE, Min HY, Spiegelman BM, 1986. Adipocyte P2 gene: Developmental expression and homology of 5’-flanking sequences among fat cell-specific genes. Proc Nati Acad Sci USA 83: 3786–3790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Huynh HT, Larsson C, Narod S, Pollak M, 1995. Tumor suppressor activity of the gene encoding mammary-derived growth inhibitor. Cancer Res 55: 2225–2231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Josephson R, Muller T, Pickel J, Okabe S, Reynolds K, Turner PA, et al. 1998. POU transcription factors control expression of CNS stem cell-specific genes. Development 125: 3087–3100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Khan SH, Sorof S, 1994. Liver fatty acid-binding protein: specific mediator of the mitogenesis induced by two classes of carcinogenic peroxisome proliferators. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91: 848–852.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Korley R, Pouresmaeili F, Oko R, 1997. Analysis of the protein composition of the mouse sperm perinuclear theca and characterization of its major protein constituent. Biol Reprod 57: 1426–1432.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Krieg P, Feil S, Furstenberger G, Bowden GT, 1993. Tumor-specific overexpression of a novel keratinocyte lipid-binding protein. Identification and characterization of a cloned sequence activated during multistage carcinogenesis in mouse skin. J Biol Chem 268: 17362–17369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kurtz A, Zimmer A, Schnutgen F, Bruning G, Spener F, Muller T, 1994. The expression pattern of a novel gene encoding brain-fatty acid binding protein correlates with neuronal and glial cell development. Development 120: 2637–2649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Lahbib-Mansais Y, Leroux S, Milan D, Yerle M, Robic A, Jiang Z, Andre C, Gellin J, 2000. Comparative mapping between humans and pigs: localization of 58 anchorage markers (TOASTs) by use of porcine somatic cell and radiation hybrid panels. Mamm Genome 11: 1098–1106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. LaLonde JM, Levenson MA, Roe JJ, Bernlohr DA, Banaszak LJ, 1994. Adipocyte lipid-binding protein complexed with arachidonic acid. J Biol Chem 269: 25339–25347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Levy E, Menard D, Delvin E, Stan S, Mitchell G, Lambert M, et al. 2001. The polymorphism at codon 54 of the FABP2 gene increases fat absorption in human intestinal explants. J Biol Chem 276: 39679–39684.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Liou H-L, Kahn PC, Storch J, 2002. Role of the helical domain in fatty acid transfer from adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding proteins to membranes. J Biol Chem 277: 1806–1815.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lowe JB, Boguski MS, Sweetser DA, Elshourbagy NA, Taylor JM, Gordon JI, 1985. Human liver fatty acid binding protein. J Biol Chem 260: 3413–3417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lucke C, Zhang F, Hamilton JA, Sacchettini JC, Ruterjans H, 2000. Solution structure of ileal lipid binding protein in complex with glycocholate. Eur J Biochem. 267: 2929–2938.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Madsen P, Rasmussen HH, Leffers H, Honore B, Celis JE, 1992. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel keratinocyte protein (psoriasis-associated fatty acid-binding protein [PA-FABP]) that is highly up-regulated in psoriatic skin and that shares similarity to fatty acid-binding proteins. J Invest Dermatol 99: 299–305.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. McArthur MJ, Atshaves BP, Frolov A, Foxworth WD, Kier AB, Schroeder F, 1999. Cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking of long chain fatty acids. J Lipid Res 40: 1371–1383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Nechtelberger D, Pires V, Solkner J, Stur I, Brem G, Mueller M, Mueller S, 2001. Intramuscular fat content and genetic variants at fatty acid-binding protein loci in Austrian pigs. J Anim Sci 79: 2798–2804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Nusbaum C, Slonim DK, Harris KL, Birren BW, Steen RG, Stein LD, et al. 1999. A YAC-based physical map of the mouse genome. Nat Genet 22: 388–393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Ockner RK, Manning JA, Kane JP, 1982. Fatty acid binding protein. Isolation from rat liver, characterization, and immunochemical quantification. J Biol Chem 257: 7872–7878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Oelkers P, Dawson PA, 1995. Cloning and chromosomal localization of the human ileal lipid-binding protein. Biochim Biophys Acta 1257: 199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Oko R, Morales CR, 1994. A novel testicular protein, with sequence similarities to a family of lipid binding proteins, is a major component of the rat sperm perinuclear theca. Dev Biol 166: 235–245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ovilo C, Oliver A, Noguera JL, Clop A, Barragan C, Varona L, et al. 2002. Test for positional candidate genes for body composition on pig chromosome 6. Genet Sel Evol 34: 465–479.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Prinsen CFM, de Bruijn DRH, Merkx GFM, Veerkamp JH, 1997a. Assignment of the human adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene (FABP4) to chromosome 8q21 using somatic cell hybrid and fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. Genomics 40: 207–209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Prinsen CFM, Weghuis DO, van Kessel AD, Veerkamp JH, 1997b. Identification of a human heart FABP pseudogene located on chromosome 13. Gene 193: 245–251.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Qian Q, Kuo L, Yu YT, Rottman JN, 1999. A concise promoter region of the heart fatty acid-binding protein gene dictates tissue-appropriate expression. Circ Res 84: 276–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Rattink AP, de Koning DJ, Faivre M, Harlizius B, van Arendonk JA, Groenen MA, 2000. Fine mapping and imprinting analysis for fatness trait QTLs in pigs. Mamm Genome 11: 656–661.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Rauscher FJ, Sambucetti LC, Curran T, Distel RJ, Spiegelman BM, 1988. Common DNA binding site for fos protein complexes and transcription factor AP-1. Cell 52: 471–480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Roy R, Calvo JH, Hayes H, Rodellar C, Eggen A, 2003. Fine mapping of the bovine heart fatty acid-binding protein gene (FABP3) to BTA2q45 by fluorescence in situ hybridization and radiation hybrid mapping. Anim Genet 34: 466–467.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Saarinen L, Pulkkinen A, Kareinen A, Heikkinen S, Lehto S, Laakso M, 1998. Variants of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene are not associated with coronary heart disease in nondiabetic subjects and in patients with NIDDM. Diabetes Care 21: 849–850.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Sacchettini JC, Gordon JI, Banaszak LJ, 1988. The structure of crystallineEscherichia coli- derived rat intestinal fatty acid-binding protein at 2.5-A resolution. J Biol Chem 263: 5815–5819.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Schaap FG, van der Vusse GJ, Glatz JF, 2002. Evolution of the family of intracellular lipid binding proteins in vertebrates. Mol Cell Biochem 239: 69–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Schaffer JE, 2002. Fatty acid transport: the roads taken. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 282: E239–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Shimizu F, Watanabe TK, Shinomiya H, Nakamura Y, Fujiwara T, 1997. Isolation and expression of a cDNA for human brain fatty acid-binding protein (B-FABP). Biochim Biophys Acta 1354: 24–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Simon TC, Roth KA, Gordon JI, 1993. Use of transgenic mice to map cis-acting elements in the liver fatty acid-binding protein gene (Fabpl) that regulate its cell lineage-specific, differentiation-dependent, and spatial patterns of expression in the gut epithelium and in the liver acinus. J Biol Chem 268: 18345–18358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Sparkes RS, Mohandas T, Heinzmann C, Gordon JI, Klisak I, Zollman S, et al. 1987. Human fatty acid binding protein assignments: intestinal to 4q28-4q31 and liver to 2p1 1. Cytogenet Cell Genet 46: 697.Google Scholar
  75. Stan S, Lambert M, Delvin E, Paradis G, O’loughlin J, Hanley JA, Levy E, 2005. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein polymorphisms in French-Canadian youth. J Lipid Res 46: 320–327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Steen RG, Kwitek-Black AE, Glenn C, Gullings-Handley J, van Etten W, Atkinson OS, et al. 1999. A high-densit inytegrated genetic linkage and radiation hybrid map of the laboratory rat. Genome Res 9: AP1–8, insert.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Storch J, Thumser AE, 2000. The fatty acid transport function of fatty acid-binding proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta 1486: 28–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Su AI, Wiltshire T, Batalov S, Lapp H, Ching KA, Block D, et al. 2004. A gene atlas of the mouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101: 6062–6067.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Sweetser DA, Birkenmeier EH, Klisak IJ, Zollman S, Sparkes RS, Mohandas T, et al. 1987. The human and rodent intestinal fatty acid binding protein genes: A comparative analysis of their structure, expression, and linkage relationships. J Biol Chem 262: 16060–16071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sweetser DA, Lowe JB, Gordon JI, 1986. The nucleotide sequence of the rat liver fatty acid-binding protein gene: Evidence that exon 1 encodes an oligopeptide domain shared by a family of proteins which bind hydrophobic ligands. J Biol Chem 261: 5553–5561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Tan N-S, Shaw NS, Vinckenbosch N, Liu P, Yasmin R, Desvergne B, et al. 2002. Selective cooperation between fatty acid binding proteins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in regulating transcription. Moll Cell Biol 22: 5114–5127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tang MK, Kindler PM, Cai DQ, Chow PH, Li M, Lee KK, 2004. Heart-type fatty acid binding proteins are upregulated during terminal differentiation of mouse cardiomyocytes, as revealed by proteomic analysis. Cell Tissue Res 316: 339–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Thompson J, Winter N, Terwey D, Bratt J, Banaszak L, 1997. The crystal structure of the liver fatty acid-binding protein. J Biol Chem 272: 7140–7150.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Treuner M, Kozak CA, Gallahan D, Grosse R, Muller T, 1994. Cloning and characterization of the mouse gene encoding mammary-derived growth inhibitor/ heart-fatty acid-binding protein. Gene 147: 237–242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Troxler RF, Offner GD, Jiang J-W, Wu B-L, Skare JC, Milunsky A, Wyandt HE, 1993. Localization of the gene for human heart fatty acid binding protein to chromosome 1p32-1p33. Hum Genet 92: 563–566.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Urban T, Mikolasova R, Kuciel J, Ernst M, Ingr I, 2002. A study of associations of the H-FABP genotypes with fat and meat production of pigs. J Appl Genet 43: 505–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Vork MM, Glatz JF, van der Vusse GJ, 1993. On the mechanism of long chain fatty acid transport in cardiomyocytes as facilitated by cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein. J Theor Biol 160: 207–222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Weiss EP, Brown MD, Shuldiner AR, Hagberg JM, 2002. Fatty acid binding protein-2 gene variants and insulin resistance: gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Physiol Genomics 10: 145–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Wolfrum C, Borrmann CM, Borchers T, Spener F, 2001. Fatty acids and hypolipidemic drugs regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha- and gamma-mediated gene expression via liver fatty acid binding protein: a signaling path to the nucleus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 2323–2328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Xu Z, Bernlohr DA, Banaszak LJ, 1993. The adipocyte lipid-binding protein at 1.6-A resolution. J Biol Chem 268: 7874–7878.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Yang Y, Spitzer E, Kenney N, Zschiesche W, Li M, Kromminga A, et al. 1994. Members of the fatty acid binding protein family are differentiation factors for the mammary gland. J Cell Biol 127: 1097–1109.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Yue G, Stratil A, Kopecny M, Schroffelova D, Schroffel J, Hojny J, et al. 2003. Linkage and QTL mapping forSus scrofa chromosome 6. J Anim Breed Genet 120 (Suppl. 1): 45–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Zhang J, Rickers-Haunerland J, Dawe I, Haunerland NH, 1999. Structure and chromosomal location of the rat gene encoding the heart fatty acid-binding protein. Eur J Biochem 266: 347–351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Zimmerman AW, Veerkamp JH, 2002. New insights into the structure and function of fatty acid-binding proteins. Cell Mol Life Sci 59: 1096–1116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poznan 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Genetics and BreedingAugust Cieszkowski Agricultural University of PoznańPoznańPoland

Personalised recommendations