Advertisement

Acta Theriologica

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 333–338 | Cite as

The systematic status of the Italian wolfCanis lupus

  • Ronald M. Nowak
  • Nicholas E. (Brusco) Federoff
Article

Abstract

In the past, the gray wolfCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, has been recognized in Italy as either the subspecieslupus oritalicus. It has also been postulated that this population has undergone introgression from the domestic dogCanis familiaris. In order to clarify these issues, multistatistical analyses were made of 10 skull measurements of 34 full grown male wolves from the Italian Peninsula, 91 other male Eurasian wolves, and 20 domestic dogs. The analyses, together with other morphological evidence and prior genetic research, support recognition of the Italian wolf as a separate subspecies,Canis lupus italicus. The same evidence indicates that the subspecies has not been affected through hybridization with the domestic dog.

Key words

Canis lupus systematics taxonomy morphology hybridization Italy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altobello G. 1921. [Fauna of Abruzzo and Molise]. Mammiferi 4: 38–45. [In Italian]Google Scholar
  2. Boitani L. 1984. Genetic considerations on wolf conservation in Italy. Bollettino di Zoologia 51: 367–373.Google Scholar
  3. Boitani L. 1993. Wolf management action required for conservation. [In: Wolves in Europe, status and perspectives. C. Promberger and W. Schroder, eds]. Wildbiologische Gesellschaft München e. V., Munich: 114–118.Google Scholar
  4. Ciucci P. and Boitani L. 1991. Viability assessment of the Italian wolf and guidelines for the management of the wild and a captive population. Ricerche di Biologia della Selvaggina 89: 1–58.Google Scholar
  5. Corbet G. B. 1978. The mammals of the Palaearctic Region: a taxonomic review. British Museum (Natural History), London: 1–314.Google Scholar
  6. Ellerman J. R. and Morrison-Scott T. C. S. 1966. Checklist of Palaearctic and Indian mammals. 2nd Edition. British Museum Natural History, London: 1–810.Google Scholar
  7. Nowak R. M. 1979. North American QuaternaryCanis. Monograph of the Museum of Natural History, University of Kansas 6: 1–154.Google Scholar
  8. Nowak R. M. 1995a. Another look at wolf taxonomy. [In: Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. Proceedings of the 2nd North American Wolf Symposium, August 24–27, 1992. L. N. Carbyn, S. H. Fritts and D. R.Seip, eds]. Canadian Circumpolar Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton: 375–398.Google Scholar
  9. Nowak R. M. 1995b. Hybridization: The double-edged threat. Canid News (Newsletter of the IUCN Canid Specialist Group) 3: 2–6.Google Scholar
  10. Pocock R. I. 1935. The races ofCanis lupus. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 43: 617–686.Google Scholar
  11. Randi E. 1993. Effects of fragmentation and isolation on genetic variability of the Italian populations of wolfCanis lupus and brown bearUrsus arctos. Acta Theriologica 38: 113–120.Google Scholar
  12. Randi E., Francisci F. and Lucchini V. 1995. Mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length monomorphism in the Italian wolf (Canis lupus) population. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolution Research 33: 97–100.Google Scholar
  13. Randi E., Lucchini V., Christensen M. F., Mucci N., Funk S. M., Dolf G. and Loeschcke V. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA variability in Italian and east European wolves: detecting the consequences of small population size and hybridization. Conservation Biology 14: 464–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. SAS Institute 1987. SAS/STAT guide for personal computers, version 6. 1–1028.Google Scholar
  15. Sokolov V. E. and Rossolimo O. L. 1985. Taxonomy and variability. [In: The wolf, history, systematics, morphology, ecology. D. I. Bibikov, ed]. U.S.S.R. Academy of Science, Nauka Publishers, Moscow: 21–50.Google Scholar
  16. Vila C., Savolainen P., Maldanado J. E., Amorim I. R., Rice J. E., Honeycutt R. L., Crandall K. A., Lundeberg J. and Wayne R. K. 1997. Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog. Science 276: 1687–1689.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Wayne R. K., Lehman N., Allard M. W. and Honeycutt R. L. 1992. Mitochondrial DNA variability of the gray wolf: genetic consequences of population decline and habitat fragmentation. Conservation Biology 6: 559–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Young S. P. and Goldman E. A. 1944. The wolves of North America. American Wildlife Institute, Washington, D.C.: 1–636.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mammal Research Institute, Bialowieza, Poland 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ronald M. Nowak
    • 1
  • Nicholas E. (Brusco) Federoff
    • 2
  1. 1.Falls ChurchUSA
  2. 2.Patuxent Wildlife Research CenterLaurelUSA

Personalised recommendations