Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Early primiparity in brown bears

Abstract

We documented 2 cases of unusually early primiparity in brown bearsUrsus arctos Linneaus, 1758 in an introduced population in central Austria. Two females gave birth at the age of 3 years.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Beecham J. J. 1980. Some population characteristics of two black bear populations in Idaho. [In: Bears — their biology and management. C. J. Martinka and K. L. McArthur, eds]. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 4: 201–204.

  2. Bunnel F. L. and Tait D. E. N. 1981. Population dynamics of bears — implications. [In: Dynamics of large mammals populations. C. W. Fowler and T. D. Smith, eds]. John Wiley and Sons, New York: 75–98.

  3. Curry-Lindahl K. 1972. The brown bear (Ursus arctos) in Europe: decline, present distribution, biology and ecology. [In: Bears — their biology and management. S. Herrero, ed]. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 2: 74–80.

  4. Dittrich L. and Kronberger H. 1963. Biologisch-anatomische Untersuchungen über die Fortpflanzungsbiologie des Braunbären (Ursus arctos L.) und anderer Ursiden in Gefangenschaft. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 28: 129–192.

  5. Ennis S. and Gallagher T. F. 1994. A PCR-based sex-determination assay in cattle based on the bovine amelogenin locus. Animal Genetics 25: 425–427.

  6. Frković A., Huber Đ. and Kusak J. 2001. Brown bear litter sizes in Croatia. Ursus 12: 103–106.

  7. Jonkel J. J. 1993. A manual for handling bears for managers and researchers. Office of Grizzly Bear Recovery, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Natural Sciences 312, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana: 1–175.

  8. Jonkel C. L. and Cowan I. M. 1971. The black bear in the spruce-fir forest. Wildlife Monographs 27: 1–57.

  9. Kolenosky G. B. 1990. Reproductive biology of black bears in east-central Ontario. [In: Bears — their Biology and Management. Darling L. M. and Archibald W. R., eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8: 385–392.

  10. Kordek W. S. and Lindzey J. S. 1980. Preliminary analysis of female reproductive tracts from Pennsylvania black bears. [In: Bears — their biology and management. C. J. Martinka and K. L. McArthur, eds]. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 4: 159–161.

  11. McLellan B. 1994. Density-dependent population regulation of brown bears. [In: Density-dependent population regulation of black, brown and polar bears. M. Taylor, ed.] Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 9, Monograph Series No. 3: 15–24.

  12. Paetkau D., Stirling I. and Strobeck C. 1995. Microsatellite analysis of population-structure in Canadian polar bears. Molecular Ecology 4: 347–354.

  13. Ramsey M. A. and Stirling I. 1988. Reproductive biology and ecology of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Journal of Zoology, London 214: 601–634.

  14. Rauer G. 1997. First experiences with the release of 2 female brown bears in the Alps of eastern Austria. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 9 (2): 91–95.

  15. Rauer G., Aubrecht P., Gutleb B., Kaczensky P., Knauer F., Plutzar C., Slotta-Bachmayr L., Walzer C. and Zedrosser A. 2001. Der Braunbär in Österreich II. Federal Environment Agency—Austria, Monograph Series No. 110: 1–102.

  16. Rauer G. and Gutleb B. 1997. Der Braunbär in Österreich. Federal Environment Agency—Austria, Monograph Series No. 88: 1–64.

  17. Rogers L. L. 1976. Effects of mast and berry crop failures on survival, growth, and reproductive success of black bears. Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference, Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C. 41: 431–438.

  18. Rogers L. L. 1987. Effects of food supply and kinship on social behavior, movements, and population growth of black bears in northeastern Minnesota. Wildlife Monographs 97: 1–72.

  19. Stearns S. C. 1992. The evolution of life histories. Oxford University Press, New York: 1–249.

  20. Stringham S. F. 1980. Possible impacts of hunting on the grizzly/brown bear, a threatened species. [In: Bears—their biology and management. C. J. Martinka and K. L. McArthur, eds]. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 4: 337–349.

  21. Stringham S. F. 1990a. Grizzly bear reproductive rate relative to body size. [In: Bears—their biology and management. L. M. Darling and W. R. Archibald, eds]. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8: 433–443.

  22. Stringham S. F. 1990b. Black bear reproductive rate relative to body weight in hunted populations. [In: Bears—their biology and management. L. M. Darling and W. R. Archibald, eds]. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8: 425–432.

  23. Swenson J. E., Gerstl N., Dahle B. and Zedrosser A. 2000. Action plan for the conservation of the brown bear in Europe. Council of Europe, Strasbourgh Cedex, Nature and Environment No. 114: 1–69.

  24. Swenson J. E., Sandegren F., Brunberg S. and Segerström P. 2001. Factors associated with loss of brown bear cubs in Sweden. Ursus 12: 69–80.

  25. Taberlet P., Camarra J. J., Griffin S., Uhres E., Hanotte O., Waits L. P., Dubois-Paganon C., Burke T. and Bouvet J. 1997. Noninvasive genetic tracking of the endangered Pyrenean brown bear population. Molecular Ecology 6: 869–876.

  26. Taberlet P., Mattock H., Dubois-Paganon C. and Bouvet J. 1993. Sexing free-ranging brown bearsUrsus arctos using hairs found in the field. Molecular Ecology 2: 399–403.

  27. Tsubota T., Xanagawa H., Mano T. and Aoi T. 1989. Corpora albicantia and placental scars in the Hokkaido brown bear. [In: Bears—their biology and management. L. M. Darling and W. R. Archibald, eds]. Proceedings of the International Conference on Bear Research and Management 8: 125–128.

  28. Woods J. G., Paetkau D., Lewis D., McLellan B. N., Proctor M. and Strobeck C. 1999. Genetic tagging of free-ranging black and brown bears. Wildlfe Society Bulletin 27: 616–627.

  29. Zedrosser A., Dahle B., Swenson J. E. and Gerstl N. 2001. Status and management of the brown bear in Europe. Ursus 12: 9–20.

  30. Zedrosser A., Rauer G. and Gerstl N. 1999. Brown bears in Austria. 10 years of conservation and actions for the future. Federal Environment Agency—Austria, Monograph Series No. 117: 1–42.

Download references

Author information

Additional information

Associate Editor was Krzysztof Schmidt.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Zedrosser, A., Rauer, G. & Kruckenhauser, L. Early primiparity in brown bears. Acta Theriol 49, 427–432 (2004). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03192540

Download citation

Key words

  • Ursus arctos
  • primiparity
  • reproduction