Advertisement

Acta Theriologica

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 275–280 | Cite as

The process of a wolf pack splitting in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland

  • Włodzimierz Jędrzejewski
  • Krzysztof Schmidt
  • Bogumiła Jędrzejewska
  • Jörn Theuerkauf
  • Rafał Kowalczyk
  • Karol Zub
Article

Abstract

In 1998, the pack of 7 wolvesCanis lupus Linnaeus, 1758, radio-tracked in Białowieża Primeval Forest, East Poland, split into 2 packs (2 and 5 wolves), when an 8-year-old alpha female ceased breeding. The two sister-packs subdivided their original territory, but their ranges overlapped extensively (49%) for one year after the split, except for May-June, when both new packs reared pups. We propose that food related factors could have been the ultimate cause of splitting of a large pack. In European temperate forests, pack size of 5–6 wolves is optimal for the consumption of the red deerCervus elaphus.

Key-words

Canis lupus home ranges pack size pack splitting prey size 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Gipson P. S., Ballard R. M., Nowak R. M. and Mech L. D. 2000. Accuracy and precision of estimating age of gray wolves by tooth wear. The Journal of Wildlife Management 64: 752–758.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hayes R. D. and Harestad A. S. 2000. Demography of a recovering wolf population in the Yukon. Canadian Journal of Zoology 78: 36–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Jędrzejewska B. and Jędrzejewski W. 1998. Predation in vertebrate communities. The Białowieża Primeval Forest as a case study. Springer Verlag, Berlin: 1–450.Google Scholar
  4. Jędrzejewski W., Jędrzejewska B., Okarma H., Schmidt K., Zub K. and Musiani M. 2000. Prey selection and predation by wolves in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland. Journal of Mammalogy 81: 197–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Jędrzejewski W., Nowak S., Schmidt K. and Jędrzejewska B. 2002b. The wolf and the lynx in Poland—results of a census conducted in 2001. Kosmos 51: 491–499. [In Polish with English summary]Google Scholar
  6. Jędrzejewski W., Schmidt K., Theuerkauf J., Jędrzejewska B., Selva N., Zub K. and Szymura L. 2002a. Kill rates and predation by wolves on ungulate populations in Białowieża Primeval Forest (Poland). Ecology 83: 1341–1356.Google Scholar
  7. Mech L. D. and Boitani L. 2003. Wolf social ecology. [In: Wolves. Behavior, ecology, and conservation. L. D. Mech and L. Boitani, eds]. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago: 1–34.Google Scholar
  8. Meier T. J., Burch J. W., Mech L. D. and Adams L. G. 1995. Pack structure and genetic relatedness among wolf packs in a naturally-regulated population. [In: Ecology and conservation of wolves in a changing world. L. N. Carbyn, S. H. Fritts and D. R. Seip, eds]. University of Alberta, Edmonton: 293–302.Google Scholar
  9. Okarma H. and Jędrzejewski W. 1997. Live-trapping wolves with nets. Wildllife Society Bulletin 25: 78–82.Google Scholar
  10. Okarma H., Jędrzejewski W., Schmidt K., OEnieżko S., Bunevich A. N. and Jêdrzejewska B. 1998. Home ranges of wolves in Białowieża Primeval Forest, Poland, compared with other Eurasian populations. Journal of Mammalogy 79: 842–852.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Theuerkauf J. and Jędrzejewski W. 2002. Accuracy of radiotelemetry to estimate wolf activity and locations. The Journal of Wildlife Management 66: 859–864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Wolfe M. L. and Allen D. L. 1973. Continued studies of the status, socialization, and relationships of Isle Royale wolves, 1967 to 1970. Journal of Mammalogy 54: 611–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Mammal Research Institute, Bialowieza, Poland 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Włodzimierz Jędrzejewski
    • 1
  • Krzysztof Schmidt
    • 1
  • Bogumiła Jędrzejewska
    • 1
  • Jörn Theuerkauf
    • 1
    • 2
  • Rafał Kowalczyk
    • 1
  • Karol Zub
    • 1
  1. 1.Mammal Research InstitutePolish Academy of SciencesBiałowieżaPoland
  2. 2.Wildlife Biology and Management Unit, Department of Ecosystem and Landscape ManagementMunich University of Technical SciencesFreisingGermany

Personalised recommendations