This randomized, open-label, balanced, five-treatment, five-period, five-sequence, single-dose and crossover pharmacokinetic study assessed the effect of different types of food on the bioavailability of cefaclor in 18 healthy male volunteers. A single dose of cefaclor, 250-mg capsule was administered at five occasions: after overnight fasting, after two vegetarian (high-fat and low-fat) diets and two non-vegetarian (high-fat and low-fat) diets. Serial blood samples were collected upto 8 h post dose. Serum cefaclor concentrations were determined by a validated HPLC method. AUC values were not significantly affected by food intake, but the Tmax was prolonged and Cmax was decreased, depending on the type of meal. The non-vegetarian diets affected the rate of absorption of cefaclor more than the vegetarian diets. The least decrease in Cmax was produced by low-fat vegetarian diet, while the maximum decrease was produced by high-fat non-vegetarian diet. The results of this study indicate that while the rate of absorption of cefaclor is significantly decreased, the extent of absorption and the rate of elimination are not significantly decreased in the presence of food. As compared to high-fat non-vegetarian diet, the time above MIC50 concentration was significantly increased by low-fat vegetarian diet. The implications of these findings for the large vegetarian Indian population are considerable.
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Karim, S., Ahmed, T., Monif, T. et al. The effect of four different types of food on the bioavailability of cefaclor. Eur. J. Drug Metab. Pharmacokinet. 28, 185–190 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03190484