Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

For holistic control of reactive N: Regional, national and global perspectives

Abstract

Reactive N is closely related to the global issues of climate change and regional pollutions. Nitrous oxide (N2O), the fourth important gas among greenhouse gases, is produced as an intermediate in nitrification and denitrification processes. As methane (CH4) is the end product in the anoxic decomposition of organic materials, mitigation options of N2O emission are different from those of CH4 emission. Nitrate is another reactive N bringing about the eutrification of aqueous environments and the hazard of drinking water. Mitigation of NO3 problem also relates closely to the N2O emission. Therefore, holistic approaches are necessary for solving the problems of Earth warming and environmental eutrification by reactive N at the same time. In this paper, the deforestation in the tropics, and the present situations of food supply and sustainable agriculture in Japan are re-evaluated in terms of N2O emission and NO3 discharge from the agricultural sector. The magnitude of N2O emission by deforestation in the tropics may fall within the similar order of magnitude by N fertilization. As more N is imported as foods and fodder than the amount of fertilized N in Japan, more attention should be paid to the phases of their consumption and waste treatment. Sole attention to the production stage is not enough for the total mitigation of various environmental problems by reactive N in relation to agriculture. Parameters holistically evaluating the impact of reactive N on the Earth and respective regions are urgently necessary.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. 1.

    Albritton, D. L., Meira Filho, L. G., Technical summary, in Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis (eds. Houghton, J. T., Ding, Y., Griggs, D. J. et al.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001, 21–83.

  2. 2.

    Cai, Z. C., Xing, G. X., Yan, X. Y. et al., Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddy fields as affected by nitrogen fertilizers and water management, Plant Soil, 1997, 196: 7–14.

  3. 3.

    Kimura, M., Anaerobic microbiology in waterlogged rice fields, in Soil Biochemistry (eds. Bollag, J. M., Stotzky, G.), New York: Marcel Dekker, 2000, vol. 10, 35–138.

  4. 4.

    Skiba, U., Smith, K. A., The control of nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural and natural soils, Chemosphere-Global Change Sci., 2000, 2: 379–386.

  5. 5.

    Matson, P. A., Vitousek, P. M., Cross-system comparisons of soil nitrogen transformations and nitrous oxide flux in tropical forest ecosystems, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 1987, 1: 163–170.

  6. 6.

    Flessa, D., Dörsch, P., Besse, F. et al., Influence of cattle wastes on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture land, J. Environ. Quality, 1996, 25: 1366–1370.

  7. 7.

    Yamulki, S., Jarvis, S. C., Nitrous oxide emissions from excreta applied in a simulated grazing pattern and from fertilizer application to grassland, in Gaseous nitrogen emissions from grasslands (eds. Jarvis, S. C., Pain, B.), Wallingford: CAB International, 1997, 195–199.

  8. 8.

    Dobbie, K. E., McTaggart, I. P., Smith, K. A., Nitrous oxide emissions from intensive agricultural systems: Variations between crops and seasons, key driving variables, and mean emission factors, J. Geophys. Res., 1999, 104D: 26891–26899.

  9. 9.

    Groffman, P. M., Gold, A. J., Addy, K., Nitrous oxide production in riparian zones and its importance to national emission inventories, Chemosphere-Global Change Sci., 2000, 2: 291–299.

  10. 10.

    Sitaura, B. K., Hansen, S., Sitaula, J. I. B. et al., Effect of soil compaction on N2O emission in agricultural soil, Chemosphere-Global Change Sci., 2000, 2: 367–371.

  11. 11.

    Hasegawa, K., Hanaki, K., Matsuo, T. et al., Nitrous oxide from the agricultural water system contaminated with high nitrogen, Chemosphere-Global Change Sci., 2000, 2: 335–345.

  12. 12.

    Association of Agriculture and Forestry Statistics, White Paper on the Agriculture, Japan 1992, Tokyo: Association of Agriculture and Forestry Statistics, 1993, 105.

  13. 13.

    Buringh, P., Organic carbon in soils of the world, in The Role of Terrestrial Vegetation in the Global Carbon Cycle: Measurement by Remote Sensing, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1984, 91–109.

  14. 14.

    Bolin, B., Cook, R. B., C, N, P, and S cycles: Major reservoirs and fluxes, in The Major Biogeochemical Cycles in Their Interactions (eds. Bolin, B., Cook, R. B.), New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1983, 41–65.

  15. 15.

    Weitz, A. M., Veldkamp, E., Keller, M., et al., Nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane fluxes from soils following clearing and burning of tropical secondary forest, J. Geophys. Res., 1998, 103D: 28047–28058.

  16. 16.

    Duxbury, J. M., The significance of agricultural sources of greenhouse gases, Fertil. Res., 1994, 38: 151–163.

  17. 17.

    Keller, M., Veldkamp, E., Weitz, A. M. et al., Effect of pasture age on soil trace-gas emissions from a deforested area of Costa Rica, Nature, 1993, 365: 244–246.

  18. 18.

    IPCC, in Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National greenhouse Gas Inventories (eds. Houghton, J. T., Meira Filho, L. G., Lim, K. et al.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997, vol. 1–3.

  19. 19.

    Houghton, R. A., Tropical deforestation and atmospheric carbon dioxide, Climate Change, 1991, 19: 99–118.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kimura, M. For holistic control of reactive N: Regional, national and global perspectives. Sci. China Ser. C.-Life Sci. 48, 856–860 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03187124

Download citation

Keywords

  • holistic control of reactive N
  • regional
  • national and global scales