Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Relation between food consumption, growth and egg production in the tropical spiderCyrtophora cicatrosa (Araneidae, Araneae) under experimental conditions of food abundance and ration

  • 20 Accesses

  • 5 Citations


Aspects of food utilisation, growth and egg production were studied inCyrtophora cicatrosa as a function of food abundance and ration. Restriction of ration resulted increased mortality, extension of nymphal period and prolongation of interoviposition period. Rates of feeding and conversion showed decreasing trend with reduced ration levels.C. Cicatrosa exhibited the following aspects of egg production: (a) larger the egg sac, higher the number of eggs present, (b) at optimum rearing conditions, such asad libitum ration at 27°C, the female produced large egg sacs and oviposited as many times as possible (c) age definitely affected the size of the egg sac, older the female, smaller the egg sac produced, (d) increased food consumption resulted in high egg production and (e) dry weight of the egg tends to be more or less constant.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Anderson J F 1966 The excreta of spiders;Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 17 973–982

  2. Anderson J F 1978 Energy content of spider egg;Oecohgia (Bed.) 37 41–57

  3. Blanke R 1974 Untersuchungen zum sexual varhalten vonCytophora cicatrosa (Stoliczka) Araneae, Araneidae;Z. Tierpsychoi 37 62–74

  4. Celerier M L 1971 Development of consomation alimentaire d’une Araignee:Tegenaria Bl. (Agelenidae);C. r. hebd.Seanc. Acad. Sci. Paris 272 3202–3205

  5. Duffey E 1978 Ecological strategies in spider including some characteristic of species in pioneer and mature habitats;Symp. Zool. Lond. 42 109–123

  6. Eberhard W G 1979 Rate of egg production by tropical spiders in the field;Biotropica 11 292–300

  7. Eberhard W G 1980 The natural history and behaviour of the Bolas spiderMastophora dizzy deani sp. N (Araneidae);Psyche 87 143–169

  8. Edgar W D 1969 Prey and predators of wolf spiderLycosa luguhris J.Zool. Lond. 159 405–411

  9. Edgar W D 1971a Seasonal weight changes, age structure, natality and mortality in the wolf spiderPardosa lugubris Walckenaer in Central Scotland;Oikos 2 84–92

  10. Edgar W D 1971b The life cycle, abundance and seasonal movement of the wolf spiderLycosa (Pardosa) lugubris in Central Scotland;J. Anim. Ecol. 40 303–322

  11. Edgar W D 1971c Aspects of the ecological energetics of the wolf spiderPardosa (Lycosa) Lugubris (Walckenaer);Oecologia (Beri) 7 136–154

  12. Gertsch W J 1979American spiders 2 edn; (New York: Van Nostrand) p. 274

  13. Hairston N G, Smith F E and Slobodkin L B 1960 Community structure, population control and competition;Am. Nat. 94 421–125

  14. Kajak A 1965 An analysis of food relations between the spidersAraneus cornutus clerck andAraneus quadratus clerck and their prey in meadows;Ekol. Pol. Ser. 13 717–762

  15. Kajak A 1967 Productivity of some populations of spiders, inSecondary productivity of terrestrial ecosystems (Principles and methods) (ed) K Petrusewicz (Warsaw: Enst. Ecol. Polish Acad. Sci.) pp. 807–820

  16. Kessler A 1971 Relation between egg production and food consumption in species of genusPardosa (Lycosidae, Araneae) under experimental conditions of food abundance and food shortage;Oecologia (Berl) 8 95–109

  17. Kessler A 1973 A comparative study of the production of eggs in eightParodsa species in the field (Araneida, Lycosidae);Tijdschr. Entomol. 116 23–41

  18. Mikulska I and Jacunski L 1968 Facundity and reproduction activity of the spiderTegenaria abrica Koch;Ecologica 18 97–106

  19. Moulder B C and Reichle D E 1972 Significance of spider predation in the energy dynamics of forest-floor arthropod communities;Ecol. Monogr. 42 473–498

  20. Miyashita K 1968 Growth and development ofLycosa T. insignita (Boes. et Str. Araneae: Lycosidae) under different feeding conditions;Appl. Entomol. Zool. 3 81–83

  21. Palanichamy S 1980Ecophysiological studies on a chosen spider: Cyrtophora cicatrosa (Araneae, Araneidae) Ph.D. Thesis Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai p. 137

  22. Palanichamy S 1983 Influence of spatial heterogeneity and prey density on predatory behaviour of the tropical spidersCyrtophora cicatrosa (Stoliczka) andMarpissa calcutaensis (Tikader) (Araneae, Araneidae);Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Anim. Sci.) 92 429–435

  23. Palanichamy S and Pandian T J 1983 Incubation, hatching and yolk utilization in the eggs ofCyrtophora cicatrosa (Araneae, Araneidae);Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci. (Anim. Sci.) 92 369–374

  24. Palanichamy S and Baranikumar S 1984 Effects of food rationing on egg production in the araneid spiderCyrtophora citricola Forskal (Araneae, Araneidae);Mon. Zool. Ital. 18

  25. Peck W B and Whitcomb W H 1970 Studies on the biology of the spider,Chiracantbium inclusum (Hentz);Bull. Ark. Agric. Expt. Stn. 753 1–76

  26. Petrusewicz K and MacFadyen A 1970Productivity of terrestrial animals IBP Hand book No. 13. (Oxford: Black well Scientific Publications) p. 190

  27. Prakash R N 1979Ecophysiological studies on some chosen spiders Ph.D. Thesis; Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, p. 98.

  28. Riechert S E and Tracy C R 1975 Thermal balance and prey availability: Bases for a model relating web-site characteristics to spider reproductive success;Ecology 56 265–284

  29. Robinson M H and Robinson B C 1973 Ecology and behaviour of the giant wood spiderNephila maculata (Fabricus) in New Guinea;Smithson Contrib. Zool. 149 76

  30. Savory T H 1928The biology of spiders (London: Sidgwick and Jackson) p. 376

  31. Steigen A L 1975 Energetics in the populationPardosa palusiris (L) (Araneae, Araneidae) on Hardangervidda. In:Fennoscandian Tundra ecosystems Part 2: Animals and systems analysis (ed) F E Wielgolaski (Berlin: Heidelberg; New York: Springer Verlag)

  32. Tarwid M 1976 Validity of egg cocoons of the spiderTetragnatha montana Sim. under various ecological conditions:Bull. Acd. Pol. Sci. Biol. 24 593–596

  33. Turnbull A L 1960 The spider population of a stand oak (Quercus robur L) in Wytham Wood, Berks, England;Can. Entomol. 92 110–124

  34. Turnbull A L 1962 Quantitative studies on the food ofLinyphia triangularis Clerck (Araneae: Linyphiidae);Can. Entomol. 94 110–124

  35. Turnbull A L 1965 Effects of prey abundance on the development of the spiderAgelenopsis potteri (Black wall) (Araneae: Agelenidae);Can. Entomol. 97 141–147

  36. Valerio C E 1974 Feeding on eggs by spiderlings ofAchaearanea tepidariorum (Araneae, Theridiidae), and the significance of quiescent instar in spiders;J. Arachnol. 2 57–62

  37. Valerio C E 1975 A unique case of mutualism;Am. Nat. 109 235–238

  38. Valerio C E 1976 Egg production and frequency of oviposition inAchaearanea tepidariorum (Araneae, theridiidae);Bull. Br. Arachnol. Soc. 3 194–198

  39. Wingerdon WKRE Van 1978 Population dynamics ofErigone artica (White) (Araneae, Linyphiidae) II;Symp. Zool. Soc. bond. 42 195–202

  40. Wise DH 1975 Food limitation of the spiderLinyphia marginata: Experimental field studies;Ecology 56 637–645

  41. Wise D H 1979 Effects of an experimental increase in prey abundance upon the reproductive rates of two orb web weaving spider species (Araneae: Araneidae);Oecologia (Berl) 41 289–300

  42. Workman C 1978 Individual energy budget ofTrochosa terricola (Araneae: Lycosidae) under constant and fluctuating temperature conditions;Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 42 223–233

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to S Palanichamy.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Palanichamy, S. Relation between food consumption, growth and egg production in the tropical spiderCyrtophora cicatrosa (Araneidae, Araneae) under experimental conditions of food abundance and ration. Proc Ani Sci 93, 599–615 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03186310

Download citation


  • Spider
  • Cyrtophora cicatrosa
  • food consumption
  • growth
  • egg production
  • ration