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PSP visualization studies on a convergent nozzle with an


An in-house Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) formulation has been developed at the Aero-Physics Laboratory at the University of Manchester. The PSP uses Bathophenanthroline Ruthenium as the luminophore molecule and is incorporated in a sol-gel matrix. Excitation occurs at400–500 nm and emission at550–650 nm. The Stern-Volmer plot of the PSP reveals small temperature dependence, which has always been an intrinsic drawback of PSPs. As a baseline experiment the PSP has been applied to examine the side-wall pressure field of the flow through a convergent nozzle with an ejector, at fully expanded Mach numbers in the rangeM j =0.52–1.36. Simultaneous static pressure measurements were also conducted to ascertain the accuracy of the PSP results. The paint has demonstrated satisfactory capabilities in not only measuring static pressures but also in visualizing key physical elements of the flow, such as the location of the expansion and oblique shock waves present in such flows.

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Correspondence to H. Zare-Behtash.

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Hossein Zare-Behtash: He received his BEng (Hons) in Aerospace Engineering in 2005 from the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST) in the UK, and is currently a final year PhD student at the University of Manchester. His current research interests are Pressure-Sensitive Paints (PSP), experimental studies on compressible vortex loops using high-speed photography, schlieren (color / black and white), shadowgraphy and PIV and PSP techniques.

Nalleli Gongora —Orozco: She received her BEng in Mechanical Engineering in 2002 from the Metropolitan Autonomous University in Mexico. She obtained her MSc degree in Theoretical and Applied Fluid Dynamics from the University of Manchester in 2005. Currently she is studying internal shock wave interactions as part of her PhD in Aerospace Engineering at the University of Manchester.

Konstantinos Kontis: He is a Reader of Fluid Dynamics and Ground Testing Technology, and the Head of the Aerospace Research Group and Aero-Physics Laboratory at the University of Manchester, School of MACE, UK. He received his BEng (Hons) in Aeronautics, University of Bristol, UK (1993), and MSc and PhD in Aerodynamics, College of Aeronautics, Cranfield University, UK (1994, 1997). He is Chartered Engineer (2000), Hellenic Technical Chamber, Greece, and Eur.Ing. (2006), FEANI, Brussels, Belgium. He is Executive Member of the International Shock Wave Institute (2007) and member of the International Advisory Committee of ISSW. His present interests include: fundamental studies on incompressible and compressible flow structures and interactions, flow control of subsonic, transonic and hypersonic flows, development of optical imaging systems for aerospace applications, and interdisciplinary shock wave related phenomena and interactions.

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Zare-Behtash, H., Gongora-Orozco, N. & Kontis, K. PSP visualization studies on a convergent nozzle with an. J Vis 12, 157–163 (2009).

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  • PSP
  • Supersonic Jet
  • Nozzle Flow
  • Oblique Shock Wave