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Measurement on CO2 solution density by optical technology

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The optical technology based on Mach-Zehnder interferometry was successfully applied to a high-pressure liquid CO2 and water system to measure CO2 solution density. Experiments were carried out at a pressure range of from 5.0 to 12.5 MPa, temperatures from 273.25 to 284.15 K, and CO2 mass fraction in solution up to 0.061. CO2 solution density data were obtained from two sets of experiments. These data were calculated through the fringe shifts induced by density changes inside of the high-pressure vessel, which were directly recorded during the experiments, and a modified version of Lorentz-Lorenz formulation. The experimental results indicated that the density ratio of CO2 solution to that of pure water at the same pressure and temperature is monotonically linear with the CO2 concentration in the solution. The slope of this linear function, calculated by the experimental data fitting, is 0.275.

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M :

molar mass [g/mol]

N :

atomic number in unit volume [−]

n :

refractive index [−]


difference of refractive indexes [−]

P :

pressure [MPa]

R :

molar refraction [cm3/mol]

Δs :

fringe shift number [−]

T :

temperature [°C]


electronic polarizability [m3]


probing distance [mm]


laser wavelength [nm]


density or bulk concentration [g/cm3]


mass fraction [−]


dielectric constant [−]

a :

state after CO2 droplet injection

b :

state before CO2 droplet injection

c :


w :


s :

state of CO2 droplet being completely dissolved

sl :



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Author information

Correspondence to Y. Song.

Additional information

Yongchen Song: He received his MSc (Eng) and Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering in 1989 and 1992 respectively from Dalian University of Technology. He then was pointed as an academic staff of the University till the year of 1996 when he began to work in Nagoya University and National Environmental Institute Japan as a researcher. Since year 2000, he had been worked for Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Japan as a senior researcher. His research interests are the investigations of optical-based diagnostics on fluid follows and on physic-chemical properties of fluids, CO2 sequestration technology and Crystal Growth of Gas Hydrate.

Masahiro Nishio: He received his MSc (Eng) in Chemical Engineering in 1987 from Yokohama National University. He also received Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering in 1990 from Yokohama National University, then worked as a researcher for Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, AIST, MITI. He has been working in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Tsukuba as a senior research scientist. His research interests are CO2 sequestration technology, Crystal Growth of Gas Hydrate and Flow Visualization.

Baixin Chen: He received his Ph. D. degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1989 from Dalian University of Technology, then worked as an academic staff in the University till 1998 when he turned to work for Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE), Japan. His research interests include the numerical simulation of turbulent multi-phase flows and Large-eddy simulation of environmental flows. He also interested in the optical diagnostics on physic-chemical properties of fluids and study of CO2 hydrate clathrate formation and dissolution.

Satoshi Someya: He received his Ph. D. degree in Nuclear Engineering in 1998 from University of Tokyo, then worked as a Research Fellow of New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) (1998–2000) in the Mechanical Engineering Laboratory of AIST. He has worked in National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) Tsukuba as a temporary researcher. He is a member of Thermal Engineering Research Group. His research interests are Crystal Growth, CO2 sequestration, Flow Induced Vibration and Flow Visualization.

Takashi Ohsumi: He is currently Chief Researcher of Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE) CO2 Sequestration Research Group, on leave from Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Japan. In 1986, when working with Tokyo Institute of Technology, he was sent to Lake Nyos in Cameroon as a member of Japanese scientific mission to investigate the CO2 eruption disaster. In 1983 he received Ph. D. in Chemical Oceanography from University of Tokyo.

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Song, Y., Nishio, M., Chen, B. et al. Measurement on CO2 solution density by optical technology. J Vis 6, 41–51 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03180963

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  • CO2 solution
  • density
  • Mach-Zehnder Interferometry
  • CO2 ocean sequestration