Coral-virus interactions: A double-edged sword?
- 544 Downloads
Marine viruses were little studied until 1989, when they were discovered to be extremely abundant in the sea. Virology is now a growing field of science in coral reef research, largely related to an increase in the frequency of coral bleaching events and other coral diseases. Because viruses are obligate symbionts, they are generally perceived as parasitic and harmful to their hosts. However, evidence that viruses confer benefits to their hosts is growing and their role as mutualists is emerging. Here we review both the detrimental and beneficial aspects of viral infections and argue that as the field of coral virology expands, in addition to their pathogenicity, the idea that viruses represent functionally beneficial components of the coral holobiont be considered.
KeywordsCoral bleaching mutualism parasitism symbiosis Scleractinia
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bigot, Y., Rabouille, A., Doury, G., Sizaret, P.Y., Delbost, F., Hamelin, M.H., and Periquet, G. 1997. Biological and molecular features of the relationships betweenDiadromus pulchellus ascovirus, a parasitoid hymenopteran wasp (Diadromus pulchellus) and its lepidopteran host,Acrolepiopsis assectella.Journal of General Virology 78: 1149–1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cervino, J.M., Hayes, R., Goreau, T.J., and Smith, G.W. 2004. Zooxanthellae regulation in Yellow Blotch/Band and other coral diseases contrasted with temperature related bleaching:In situ destruction vs expulsion.Symbiosis 37: 63–85.Google Scholar
- Comps, M. 1988. Epizootic diseases of oysters associated with viral infections. In:Disease Processes In Marine Bivalve Mollusks. Fisher, W.S., ed. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD. pp. 23–37.Google Scholar
- Fereres, A., Lister, R.M., Araya, J.E., and Foster, J.E. 1989. Development and reproduction of the English grain aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) on wheat cultivars infected with barley yellow dwarf virus.Environmental Entomology 18: 388–393.Google Scholar
- Friedman, C.S., Estes, R.M., Stokes, N.A., Burge, C.A., Hargove, J.S., Barber, B.J., Elston, R.A., Burreson, E.M., and Reece, K.S. 2005. Herpes virus in juvenile Pacific oystersCrassostrea gigas from Tomales Bay, California, coincides with summer mortality episodes.Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 63: 33–41.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mills, A.M., Ward, M.E., Heyl, T.P., and Van Dover, C.L. 2005. Parasitism as a potential contributor to massive clam mortality at the Blake Ridge Diapir methane-hydrate seep.Journal ofthe Marine Biological Association of the UK 85: 1480–1497.Google Scholar
- Mühling, M., Fuller, N.J., Millard, A., Somerfield, P.J., Marie, D., Wilson, W.H., Scanlan, D.J., Post, A.F., Joint, I., and Mann, N.H. 2005. Genetic diversity of marineSynechococcus and cooccurring cyanophage communities: evidence for viral control of phytoplankton.Environmental Microbiology 7: 499–508.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nathanson, N. and Griffin, D.E. 2007. Virus-cell interactions. In:Viral Pathogenesis and Immunity. Nathanson, N., ed. Academic Press, New York, pp. 41–44.Google Scholar
- Patten, N.L., Harrison, P.L., and Mitchell, J.G. 2008. Prevalence of virus-like particles within a staghom scleractinian coral (Acropora muricata) from the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs Online early:DOI 1O.1007/s00338-00008-00356-00339.Google Scholar
- Villarreal, L.P. 2005.Viruses and The Evolution of Life. ASM Press, American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
- Webb, B.A., Strand, M.R., Dickey, S.E., Beck, M.H., Hilgarth, R.S., Barney, W.E., Kadash, K., Kroemer, J.A., Lindstrom, K.G., Rattanadechakul, W., Shelby, K.S., Thoetkiattikul, H., Turnbull, M.W., and Witherell, R.A. 2006. Polydnavirus genomes reflect their dual roles as mutualists and pathogens.Virology 347: 160–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weigele, P.R., Pope, W.H., Pedulla, M.L., Houtz, J.M., Smith, A.L., Conway, J.F., King, J., Hatfull, G.F., Lawrence, J.G., and Hendrix, R.W. 2007. Genomic and structural analysis of Syn9, a cyanophage infecting marineProchlorococcus andSynechococcus.Environmental Microbiology 9: 1675–1695.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar