The phenology of the Mediterranean vine mealybug population in the vineyards of southern Israel was found to be characterized by a peak, occurring between mid-May and mid-June, followed by a sharp drop during July. A second, smaller peak occurs between October and December. During winter the mealybugs remain beneath the bark of the trunk at a very low population level.
The primary parasites, all of the anagyrine Encyrtidae, were (in descending order of abundance):Anagyrus pseudococci, Leptomastix flavus, Clausenia josefi, Pauridia peregrina, andLeptomastidea abnormis. The hyperparasites wereAchrysopophagus aegyptiacus (Encyrtidae) andPachyneuron siculum (Pteromalidae).Tetrastychus sp. (Eulophidae) andThysanus sp. (Signiphoridae), very rare parasites, remained unclassified.Hyperaspis spp. andScymnus spp. (Coccinellidae) are mealybug predators. They were sometimes parasitized byHomalotylus quaylei (Encyrtidae). The phenology of the entomophagous insects is described.
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Berlinger, M.J. The Mediterranean vine mealybug and its natural enemies in southern Israel. Phytoparasitica 5, 3–14 (1977). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03179429
- Mediterranean vine mealybug
- Anagyrus pseudococci
- Leptomastix flavus
- Clausenia josefi