Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 197–209 | Cite as

Sedimentology of the Miocene evaporitic succession in the north of Çankiri-Çorum basin, central Anatolia, Turkey

  • B. VarolEmail author
  • H. Araz
  • L. Karadenizli
  • N. Kazanci
  • G. Seyitoglu
  • S. Sen


The upper Miocene non-marine sediments of the Çankiri-Çorum basin in central Anatolia, have both evaporitic and non-evaporitic successions. These sediments were deposited in an evaporitic lake which had temporary episodes of palustrine conditions in response to seasonal or climatic changes. The successions show different facies such as sulfates, carbonates and siliciclastics. The sulfates comprise primary, reworked and diagenetic gypsum. The primary deposits are predominantly laminated gypsum, bedded gypsum and selenite. The reworked (detrital) gypsum comprises gypsite, gypsarenite, gypsrudite and breccias. The diagenetic type comprises micro- and macrogypsum nodules. The carbonates mainly include clayey limestone, oolitic limestone and dolomite. The siliciclastics comprise red beds and both channel and non-channel, conglomerates and mudstones.

Laminated gypsum, composed of alternating gypsum and dolomite, was a result of environmental schizohalinity. Bedded gypsum was precipitated in the deeper part of the lake during high evaporation periods. Chevron-type selenite crystals formed on saline mud flats during the times of aridity, whereas the discoidal-type seen in the organic-rich mudstones occurred in the gypsiferous marshes during the times of humidity. Reworked (detrital) gypsum dominates the lake margin. These formed during periodic wet episodes that caused reworking of primary gypsum. Gypsum nodules occurred as both early and late diagenetic products. Carbonates and siliciclastics were deposited during the freshening periods of the lake.

Climatic or seasonal changes were the main causes of the depositional styles of the upper Miocene evaporitic and non-evaporitic lacustrine deposits in Çankiri-Çorum basin. Additionally, the transition upward from alluvial to lake environment implies an important change in drainage patterns that likely occurred as a result of marginal fault activity.


Gypsum Mudstone Selenite Evaporite Gypsum Crystal 
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Copyright information

© Springer 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Varol
    • 1
    Email author
  • H. Araz
    • 1
  • L. Karadenizli
    • 1
  • N. Kazanci
    • 1
  • G. Seyitoglu
    • 1
  • S. Sen
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Department of Geological EngineeringAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Laboratoire de PaléontologieMuseum National d’ Histoire NaturelleParis

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