Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 1–20 | Cite as

Patterns in the compositions, properties, and geochemistry of carbonate minerals

  • L. Bruce Railsback


The diversity of carbonate minerals is remarkable, if largely unappreciated. For example, 277 carbonate-bearing minerals have been recognized, and among them are 158 pure carbonates of cations with valences from 1+ to 6+. The other 119 minerals additionally contain chloride, fluoride, borate, sulfate, phosphate, arsenate, arsenite, antimonate, or silicate groups, or combinations of those anions. However, combinations of anions with cations are not uniformly distributed, so that there are no bicarbonates or simple carbonates of highly-charged cations, few hydrated or OH-bearing minerals of monovalent cations, and few U-bearing carbonates with anions other than CO32, OH, and O2−. On the other hand, simple carbonates of divalent cations, OH-bearing Al carbonates, and fluoride-bearing carbonates of rare-earth elements are remarkably numerous. Many of these trends can be related to the coordination chemistry of cations in the solutions from which these minerals form.

Among nearly all the carbonate-bearing minerals, ionic potential of the cations is a major control on the extent of hydration. Degree of hydration is in turn a major control on hardness, density, and solubility.

Among the simple carbonates, hardness, density, and positions of spectroscopic peaks vary linearly with cation radius or mass, although such trends usually exist only within crystallographic groups or only within cation groups defined by the periodic table. In contrast, geochemical parameters, such as solubility and fractionation of oxygen isotopes, vary with degree ofcation fit in the 6-fold or 9-fold site of the rhombohedral and orthorhombic simple carbonates, so that there is not a linear variation with cation size. The same is true for the distribution coefficients of cations in calcite and aragonite.

Patterns thus emerge among the compositions, properties, and geochemistry of the carbonate minerals, with cationic potential and type as a major influence on composition, with degree of hydration and cation radius or mass as a control on physical and spectroscopic properties, but with cation fit as the major control on geochemical parameters. These patterns allow qualitative prediction of mineral properties and help explain the origins of some of the major problems in carbonate petrology.


Calcite Divalent Cation Aragonite Carbonate Mineral Magnesite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. ADLER, H.H., and KERR, P.F., 1963, Infrared adsorption frequency trends for anhydrous normal carbonates:The American Mineralogist, v. 48, p. 124–137.Google Scholar
  2. AHRLAND, S., CLATT, J., and DAVIES, N.R., 1958, The relative affinities of ligand atoms for acceptor molecules and ions:Quarterly Reviews, v. 12, p. 265–276.Google Scholar
  3. AXELROD, J.M., GRIMALDI, F.S., MILTON, C., and MURATA, K.J., 1951, The uranium minerals from the Hillside Mine, Yavapai County, Arizona:The American Mineralogist, v. 36, p. 1–22.Google Scholar
  4. BAKER, P.A., GIESKES, J.M., and ELDERFIELD, H., 1982, Diagenesis of carbonates in deep-sea sediments—Evidence from Sr/Ca ratios and interstitial dissolved Sr+2 data:Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 52, p. 71–82.Google Scholar
  5. BISCHOFF, W.D., SHARMA, S.K., and MACKENZIE, F.T., 1985, Carbonate cation disorder in synthetic and biogenic magnesian calcites: a Raman spectral study:American Mineralogist, v. 70, p. 581–589.Google Scholar
  6. BODINE, M.W., HOLLAND, H.D., and BORCSIK, M., 1965, Coprecipitation of manganese and strontium with calcite: Symposium on Problems of Postmagmatic Ore Deposition, v. 2. Prague, p. 401–406.Google Scholar
  7. BOOKIN, A.S. and DRITS, V.A., 1993, Polytype diversity of the hydrotalcite-like minerals; I, Possible polytypes and their diffraction features:Clays and Clay Minerals, v. 41, p. 551–557.Google Scholar
  8. BRAND, U. and VEIZER, J., 1983, Origin of coated grains: trace element constraints,in Peryt, T.M., ed., Coated Grains. Berlin, Springer Verlag, p. 9–26.Google Scholar
  9. BRINDLEY, G.W. and KIKKAWA, S., 1979, A crystal-chemical study of Mg, Al and Ni, Al hydroxy-perchlorates and hydroxy-carbonates:American Mineralogist, v. 64, p. 836–843.Google Scholar
  10. BROOKER, M.H. and BATES, J.B., 1971, Raman and infrared spectra studies of anhydrous Li2CO3 and Na2CO3:Journal of Chemical Physics, v. 54, p. 4788–4796.Google Scholar
  11. BROOKINS, D.G., 1989, Aqueous geochemistry of rare earth elements,in Lipin, B.R. and McKay, G.A., eds., Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements:Reviews in Mineralogy, v. 20, p. 201–225.Google Scholar
  12. BUDD, D.A. and HIATT, E.E., 1993, Mineralogical stabilization of high-magnesium calcite: geochemical evidence for intracrystal recrystallization within Holocene porcellaneous foraminifera:Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 63, p. 261–274.Google Scholar
  13. BURNS, R.G., 1993, Mineralogical Applications of Crystal Field Theory (2nd ed.). Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 551 p.Google Scholar
  14. BUSENBERG, E. and PLUMMER, L.N., 1985, Kinetic and thermodynamic factors controlling the distribution of SO4 2− and Na+ in calcites and selected aragonites:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 49, p. 713–725.Google Scholar
  15. CLARK, A.M., 1993, Hey’s Mineral Index. London, Chapman and Hall, 852 p.Google Scholar
  16. CRAW, D. and LANDIS, C.A., 1980, Authigenic pectolite, stevensite, and pyroaurite in a Quaternary debris flow, Southland, New Zealand:Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 50, p. 497–503.Google Scholar
  17. CROWLEY, J.A., 1975, The minerals of the Zinc Hill Mine, Inyo County, California:The Mineralogical Record, v. 6, p. 110–113.Google Scholar
  18. ELDERFIELD, H. and CHESTER, R., 1971, The effect of periodicity on the infrared absorption frequency V4 of anhydrous normal carbonate minerals:The American Mineralogist, v. 56, p. 1600–1606.Google Scholar
  19. ELTON, N.J. and HOOPER, J.J., 1992, Andersonite and schrockingerite from Geevor Mine, Cornwall; two species new to Britain:Mineralogical Magazine, v. 56, p. 124–125.Google Scholar
  20. EUGSTER, H.P. and SMITH, G.I., 1965, Mineral equilibria in the Searles Lake evaporites, California:Journal of Petrology, v. 6, p. 473–522.Google Scholar
  21. FAZELI, A.R., TAREEN, J.A.K., BASAVALINGU, B., and BHANDAGE, G.T., 1991, Standard thermodynamic data for rhodochrosite from equilibrium decomposition curve:Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Earth and Planetary Sciences), v. 100, p. 37–39.Google Scholar
  22. FISCHBECK, R. and MÜLLER, G., 1971, Monohydrocalcite, hydromagnesite, nesquehonite, dolomite, aragonite, and calcite in speleothems of the Fränkische Schweiz, Western Germany:Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 33, p. 87–92.Google Scholar
  23. FLEISCHER, M. and MANDARINO, J.A., 1995, Glossary of Mineral Species 1995. Tucson, The Mineralogical Record, Inc., 280 p.Google Scholar
  24. FREEMAN-LYNDE, R.P., WHITLEY, K.F., and LOHMANN, K.C., 1986, Deep-marine origin of equant spar cements in Bahama escarpment limestones:Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 56, p. 799–811.Google Scholar
  25. FRIEDMAN, G.M. and SCHULTZ, D.J., 1994, Precipitation of vaterite (CaCO3) during oil field drilling:Mineralogical Magazine, v. 58, p. 401–408.Google Scholar
  26. GAFFEY, S.J., 1986, Spectral reflectance of carbonate minerals in the visible and near infrared (0.35–2.55 microns): calcite, aragonite, and dolomite:American Mineralogist, v. 71, p. 151–162.Google Scholar
  27. GAFFEY, S.J., 1987, Spectral reflectance of carbonate minerals in the visible and near infrared (0.35–2.55 μm): anhydrous carbonate minerals:Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 92B, p. 1429–1440.Google Scholar
  28. GAFFORD, E.L., Jr., 1969, Experimental determination of partition coefficients for calcium, strontium, and barium in aragonite precipitated from sea water at low temperatures. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Oklahoma, 81 p.Google Scholar
  29. GAINES, R.V., SKINNER, H.C.W., FOORD, E.E., MASON, B., and ROSENZWEIG, A., 1997, Dana’s New Mineralogy (8th ed.). New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1819 p.Google Scholar
  30. GARRELS, R.M., THOMPSON, M.E., and SIEVER, R., 1960, Stability of some carbonates at 25°C and one atmosphere total pressure:American Journal of Science, v. 258, p. 402–418.Google Scholar
  31. GASCOYNE, M., 1983, Trace-element partition coefficients in the calcite-water system and their paleoclimatic significance in cave studies:Journal of Hydrology, v. 61, p. 213–222.Google Scholar
  32. GILL, S. and YEMANE, K., 1994, Environmental interpretation of a Middle-Pennsylvanian Paleosol from the Schuylkill Member, Pottsville Formation, Pottsville, Pennsylvania:Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 26, p. 494.Google Scholar
  33. GNANAPRAGASAM, E.K. and LEWIS, B.-A.G., 1995, Elastic strain energy and the distribution coefficient of radium in solid solutions with calcium salts:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 59, p. 5103–5111.Google Scholar
  34. GOLYSHEV, S.I., PADALKO, N.L., and PECHENKIN, S.A., 1981, Fractionation of stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in carbonate systems:Geochemistry International v. 18, p. 85–99.Google Scholar
  35. GOODING, J.L., WENTWORTH, S.J., and ZOLENSKY, M.E., 1988, Calcium carbonate and sulfate of possible extraterrestrial origin in the EETA 79001 meteorite:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 52, p. 909–915.Google Scholar
  36. GRADY, M.M., WRIGHT, I.P., SWART, P.K., and PILLINGER, C.T., 1988, The carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of meteoritic carbonates:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 52, p. 2855–2866.Google Scholar
  37. GRICE, J.D., 1991, Bicarbonate minerals: crystal chemistry and geological significance:Geological Association of Canada and Mineralogical Association of Canada Joint Annual Meeting Program with Abstracts, v. 16, p. 47.Google Scholar
  38. GRICE, J.D., 1994, Crystal structure relationships of REE carbonates:Abstracts of the 16th General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association, v. 16, p. 155–156.Google Scholar
  39. HEINRICH, E.W., 1966, The Geology of Carbonatites, Chicago, Rand McNally & Company, 555 p. + lii.Google Scholar
  40. HERMAN, R.G., BOGDAN, C.E., SOMMER, A.J., and SIMPSON, D.R., 1987, discrimination among carbonate minerals by Raman spectroscopy using the laser microprobe:Applied Spectroscopy, v. 41, 437–440.Google Scholar
  41. SIMPSON, D.R., 1987, Discrimination among carbonate minerals by Raman spectroscopy using the laser microprobe:Applied Spectroscopy, v. 41, p. 437–440.Google Scholar
  42. HOLLAND, H.D., HOLLAND, H.J., and MUNOZ, J.L., 1964, The co-precipitation of cations with CaCO3—II. The coprecipitation of Sr+2 with calcite between 90° and 100°C:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 28, p. 1287–1301.Google Scholar
  43. HOWSON, M.R., PETHYBRIDGE, A.D., and HOUSE, W.A., 1987, Synthesis and distribution coefficient of lowmagnesium calcites:Chemical Geology, v. 64, p. 79–87.Google Scholar
  44. HURLBUT, C.S., Jr. and KLEIN, C., 1977, Manual of Mineralogy (19th ed.). New York, John Wiley & Sons, 532 p.Google Scholar
  45. JONES, G.C. and JACKSON, B. 1993, Infrared transmission spectra of carbonate minerals. London, Chapman and Hall, 254 p.Google Scholar
  46. KAMPF, A.R., JACKSON, L.L., SIDDER, G.B., FOORD, E.E., and ADAMS, P.M., 1992, Ferrisurite the Fe3+ analogue of surite, from Inyo County, California:American Mineralogist, v. 77, p. 1107–1111.Google Scholar
  47. KAPUSTIN, Yu.L., 1980, Mineralogy of Carbonatites New Delhi, Amerind Publishing Co., 259 p.Google Scholar
  48. KATZ, A., 1973, The interaction of magnesium with calcite during crystal growth at 25–90°C and one atmosphere:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 37, p. 1563–1586.Google Scholar
  49. KELLER, W.D., SPOTTS, J.H., and BIGGS, D.L., 1952, Infrared spectra of some rock-forming minerals:American Journal of Science, v. 250, p. 458–471.Google Scholar
  50. KIM, S.-T. and O’NEIL, J.R., 1997, Equilibrium and nonequilibrium oxygen isotope effects in synthetic carbonates:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 61, p. 3461–3475.Google Scholar
  51. KINSMAN, D.J.J. and HOLLAND, H.D., 1969, The coprecipitation of cations with CaCO3 —IV. The coprecipitation of Sr+2 with aragonite between 16° and 96°C:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 33, p 1–17.Google Scholar
  52. KITANO, Y., KANAMORI, N., and OOMORI, T., 1971, Measurements of distribution coefficients of strontium and barium between carbonate precipitate and solution — abnormally high values of distribution coefficients at early stages of carbonate formation:Geochemical Journal, v. 4, p. 183–206.Google Scholar
  53. KRALIK, M., AHARON, P., SCHROLL, E., and ZACHMANN, D., 1989, Carbon and oxygen systematics of magnesites: a review,in Magnesite: Geology, Mineralogy, Geochemistry: Monograph Series on Mineral Deposits, v. 28, Berlin, Gebrüder Bornträgen, p. 197–223.Google Scholar
  54. KRAUSKOPF, K.B., 1979, Introduction to Geochemistry (2nd ed.). New York, McGraw-Hill, 617 p.Google Scholar
  55. LANGMUIR, D., 1978, Uranium solution-mineral equilibria at low temperatures with applications to sedimentary ore genesis:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 42, p. 547–570.Google Scholar
  56. LIPPMAN, F., 1973, Sedimentary Carbonate Minerals. New York, Springer Verlag, 228 p.Google Scholar
  57. LORENS, R.B., 1981, Sr, Cd, Mn, and Co distribution coefficients in calcite as a function of calcite precipitation rate:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 45, p. 533–561.Google Scholar
  58. MACKENZIE, F.T., BISCHOFF, W.D., BISHOP, F.C., LOIJENS, M., SCHOONMAKER, J., and WOLLAST, R., 1983, Magnesian calcites: Low-temperature occurrence, solubility and solid-solution behavior,in Reeder. R.J., ed., Carbonates: Mineralogy and Chemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy, v. 11, p. 97–144.Google Scholar
  59. MAJ, S., 1974, A note on the relationship among phonon conductivity, density, and mean atomic weight for carbonate minerals:Acta Geophysica Polonica, v. 22, p. 247–250.Google Scholar
  60. MANDARINO, J.A., 1994, A Gladstone-Dale survey of the carbonate minerals:Absatracts of the 16th General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association, v. 16, p. 261–262.Google Scholar
  61. MANDARINO, J.A., 1997, New Minerals 1990–1994. Tucson, The Mineralogical Record, Inc., 222 p.Google Scholar
  62. MARAVIC, H. VON, MORTEANI G., and ROETHE, G., 1989, The cancrinite-syenite/carbonatite complex of Lueshe, Kivu/NE-Zaire: petrographic and geochemical studies and its economic significance:Journal of African Earth Sciences, v. 9, p. 341–355.Google Scholar
  63. MEECE, D.E. and BENNINGER, L.K., 1993, The coprecipitation of Pu and other radionuclides with CaCO3:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 57, p. 1447–1458.Google Scholar
  64. MERLINO, S. and ORLANDI, P., 1977, Liottite, a new mineral in the cancrinite-davyne group:American Mineralogist, v. 62, p. 321–326.Google Scholar
  65. MORSE, J.W. and MACKENZIE, F.T., 1990, Geochemistry of Sedimentary Carbonates. New York, Elsevier, 696 p.Google Scholar
  66. MORTIMER, R.J.G. and COLEMAN, M.L., 1997, Microbial influence on the oxygen isotopic composition of diagenetic siderite:Geochmimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 61, p. 1705–1711.Google Scholar
  67. MUCCI, A., 1988, Manganese uptake during calcite precipitation from seawater: Conditions leading to the formation of a pseudokutnahorite:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 52, p. 1859–1868.Google Scholar
  68. NICKEL, E.H. and NICHOLS, M.C., 1991, Mineral Reference Manual. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 250 p.Google Scholar
  69. O’NEIL, J.R., 1977, Stable isotopes in mineralogy:Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, v. 2, p. 105–123.Google Scholar
  70. O’NEIL, J.R., CLAYTON, R.N., and MAYEDA, T.K., 1969, Oxygen isotope fractionation in divalent metal carbonates:Journal of Chemical Physics, v. 51, p. 5547–5558.Google Scholar
  71. OOMORI, T., KANESHIMA, H., MAEZATO, Y., and KITANO, Y., 1987, Distribution coefficient of Mg2+ ions between calcite and solution at 10–50°C:Marine Chemistry, v. 20, p. 327–336.Google Scholar
  72. PALACHE, C., BERMAN, H., and FRONDEL, C., 1951, The System of Mineralogy, Volume II. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1124p.Google Scholar
  73. PEARSON, R.G., 1963, Hard and soft acids and bases:Journal of the American Chemical Society, v. 85, p. 3533–3539.Google Scholar
  74. PETERSEN, O.V. and GROSSMANN, M., 1994, Some pegmatite minerals from the Zomba District, Malawi:The Mineralogical Record, v. 25, p. 29–38.Google Scholar
  75. PEVEAR, D.R., KEULER, R.F., and DETHIER, D.P., 1980, The widespread formation of hydrotalcite-like minerals in Quaternary serpentine-rich tills of the Puget Lowland, Washington:Annual Clay Minerals Conference Program and Abstracts, v. 29, p. 81.Google Scholar
  76. PINGITORE, N.E., Jr. and EASTMAN, M.P., 1985 Barium partitioning during the transformation of corals from aragonite to calcite:Chemical Geology, v. 48, p. 183–187.Google Scholar
  77. PRATT, J.H., 1896, On northupite; pirssonite, a new mineral; gaylussite and hanksite from Borax Lake, San Bernardino County, California:American Journal of Science, v. 2, p. 123–135.Google Scholar
  78. RAILSBACK, L.B., 1993, A thermodynamic perspective on the stability of carbonate minerals and its implications for carbonate petrology:Journal of Geological Education, v. 41, p. 12–14.Google Scholar
  79. RAISWELL, R. and BRIMBLECOMBE, P., 1977, The partition of manganese into aragonite between 30 and 60°C:Chemical Geology, v. 19, p. 145–151.Google Scholar
  80. REEDER, R.J., 1983, Crystal chemistry of the rhombohedral carbonates,in Reeder. R.J., ed., Carbonates: Mineralogy and Chemistry:Reviews in Mineralogy, v. 11, p. 1–47.Google Scholar
  81. REEDER, R.J. and GRAMS, J.C., 1987, Sector zoning in calcite cement crystals: Implications for trace element distributions in carbonates:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 51, p. 187–194.Google Scholar
  82. REEDER, R.J. and PROSKY, J.L., 1986, Compositional sector zoning in dolomite:Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 56, p. 237–247.Google Scholar
  83. RICHTER, F.M., 1996, Models for the coupled Sr-sulfate budget in deep-sea carbonates:Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 141, p. 199–211.Google Scholar
  84. ROBIE, R.A., HEMINGWAY, B.S., and FISHER, J.R., 1979, Thermodynamic Properties of Minerals and Related Substances at 298.15 K. and 1 Bar (105 Pascals) Pressure and Higher Temperatures:U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin, v. 1452, 456 p.Google Scholar
  85. RODGERS, K.A., DAVIS, R.J., CHISHOLM, J.E., and NELSON, C.S., 1977, Motukoreaite, a new mineral occurring as beachrock cement at Auckland, New Zealand:Mineralogical Magazine, v. 41, p. M21-M23.Google Scholar
  86. ROMANEK, C.S., GRADY, M.M., WRIGHT, I.P., MITTLEFEHLDT, D.W., SOCKI, R.A., PILLINGER, C.T., and GIBSON, E.K., 1994, Record of fluid-rock interactions on Mars from the meteorite ALH84001:Nature, v. 372, p. 655–657.Google Scholar
  87. ROSENBERG, P.E. and FOIT, F.F., Jr., 1979, The stability of transition metal dolomites in carbonate systems: a discussion:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 43, p. 951–955.Google Scholar
  88. RUTT, H.N. and NICOLA, J.H., 1974, Raman spectra of carbonates of calcite structure:Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics, v. 7, p. 4522–4528.Google Scholar
  89. SARGENT-WELCH SCIENTIFIC COMPANY, 1968, Periodic Table of the Elements. Skokie, Illinois, Sargent-Welch Scientific Company, 2 p.Google Scholar
  90. SCHLAGER, W. and JAMES, N.P., 1978, Low-magnesian calcite limestones forming at the deep-sea floor, Tongue of the Ocean, Bahamas:Sedimentology, v. 25, p. 675–702.Google Scholar
  91. SIGNORELLI, S., PERONI, C., CAMATI, M., and FRATINI, F., 1996, The presence of vaterite in bonding mortars of marble inlays from Florence Cathedral:Mineralogical Magazine, v. 60, p. 663–665.Google Scholar
  92. SOKOLOVA, T.N., DRITS, V.A., YERMAKOV, V.A., STEPANOVA, K.A., and SOKOLOVA, A.L., 1985, Swelling varieties of pyroaurite group minerals in evaporites:International Geology Review, v. 27, p. 238–246.Google Scholar
  93. SPEER, J.A., 1983, Crystal chemistry and phase relations of orthorhomic carbonates,in Reeder. R.J., ed., Carbonates: Mineralogy and Chemistry:Reviews in Mineralogy, v. 11. p. 145–190.Google Scholar
  94. STAUDT, W.J., REEDER, R.J., and SCHOONEN, M.A.A., 1994, Surface structural controls on compositional zoning of SO4 2− and SeO4 2− in synthetic calcite single crystals:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 58, p. 2087–2098.Google Scholar
  95. STIPP, S.A., PARKS, G.A., NORDSTROM, D.K., and LECKIE, J.O., 1993, Solubility-product constant and thermodynamic properties for synthetic otavite, CdCO3(s), and aqueous association constants for the Cd(II)-CO2-H2, system:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 57, p. 2699–2713.Google Scholar
  96. STUMM, W. and MORGAN, J.J., 1981, Aquatic Chemistry. 2nd ed., New York, John Wiley and Sons, 780 p.Google Scholar
  97. SWEET, R.G., 1984, Evidence for playa sedimentation in the Morrison Formation, Cañon City, Colorado:Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 16, p. 672.Google Scholar
  98. TAREEN, J.A.K., FAZELI, A.R., BASAVALINGU, B., and BHANDAGE, G.T., 1991, Hydrothermal decomposition curves and thermodynamic data for spherocobaltite (CoCO3) and gaspeite (NiCO3):European Journal of Mineralogy, v. 3, p. 501–505.Google Scholar
  99. TESORIERO, A.J. and PANKOW, J.F., 1996, Solid solution partitioning of Sr+2, Ba+2, and Cd+2 to calcite:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 60, p. 1053–1063.Google Scholar
  100. TICHELMAN, J., 1973, De carbonaten:Grondboor en Hamer, v. 4, p. 100–103.Google Scholar
  101. TSUSUE, A. and HOLLAND, H.D., 1966, The coprecipitation of cations with CaCO3 —III. The coprecipitation of Zn+2 with calcite between 50°C and 250°C:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 30, p. 439–453.Google Scholar
  102. UEHARA, M., YAMAZAKI, A., and TSUTSUMI, S., 1997, Surite: Its structure and properties:American Mineralogist, v. 82, p. 416–422.Google Scholar
  103. VEIZER, J., 1974, Chemical diagenesis of belemnite shells and possible consequences for paleotemperature determinations:Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, v. 147, p. 91–111.Google Scholar
  104. VELBEL, M.A., LONG, D.T., and GOODING, J.L., 1991, Terrestrial weathering of Antarctic stone meteorites: Formation of Mg-carbonates on ordinary chondrites:Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 55, p. 67–76.Google Scholar
  105. WARTEL, M., SKIKER, M., AUGER, Y., and BOUGHRIET, 1990, Interaction of manganese(II) with carbonates in seawater: assessment of solubility product of MnCO3 and Mn distribution coefficient between the liquid phase and CaCO3 particles:Marine Chemistry, v. 29, p. 99–117.Google Scholar
  106. WHITE, W.B., 1974, The carbonate minerals,in Farmer, V.C., ed., The Infrared Spectra of Minerals. Mineralogical Society of London Monograph 4, p. 227–284.Google Scholar
  107. ZAITZEV, A.N., 1996, Rhombohedral carbonates from carbonatites of the Khibina Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia:Canadian Mineralogist, v. 34, p. 453–468.Google Scholar
  108. ZEMANN J., 1981, Zur Stereochemie der Karbonate:Fortschritte der Mineralogie, v. 59, p. 95–116.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Bruce Railsback
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations