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Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 14–20 | Cite as

Classifications of hardgrounds based upon their strength properties

  • A. Umran DoganEmail author
  • Aydin Ozsan
  • Meral Dogan
  • Celal Karpuz
  • Robert L. Brenner
Article

Abstract

Rock samples from the Baglum-Kosrelik area, 30 km north of Ankara, Turkey have been studied petrographically in detail to differentiate between nodular limestones and hardgrounds. However, it is found that petrographic criteria alone may not always be used to differentiate between nodular limestones and true hardgrounds. Distinction between hardgrounds and other wellindurated carbonate rocks can be made based upon the strength properties of the rocks, including uniaxial compressive strengths, triaxial compressive strengths, modulus ratios, and elastic constant ratios. This study showed that rock petrophysical characteristics could be used to develop criteria for distinguishing hardgrounds. For example, strength tests using the International Society for Rock Mechanics result in very high strength and extreme hardness values, with a minimum uniaxial compressive strength value, of 130 MPa with 10% standard deviation, therefore the rock can be classified as “true” hardground. Classification of these carbonates in this manner would facilitate quantitative discussions between hardground carbonate petrographers and engineering geologists. Hardgrounds throughout the world then could be tested and classified accordingly.

Keywords

hardgrounds strength properties classification Jurassic Turkey 

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Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Umran Dogan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Aydin Ozsan
    • 1
  • Meral Dogan
    • 3
  • Celal Karpuz
    • 4
  • Robert L. Brenner
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Geological EngineeringAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Biochemical EngineeringUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA
  3. 3.Department of Geological EngineeringHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Mining EngineeringMiddle East Technical UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  5. 5.Department of GeoscienceUniversity of IowaIowa CityUSA

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