Advertisement

Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp 2–10 | Cite as

Diagenetic history of a submerged Pleistocene Jamaican fringing reef

  • M. L. McCullough
  • L. S. Land
Article

Abstract

In the Discovery Bay area of northern Jamaica, a fringing reef grew and was subsequently planed off as sea level rose to and fell from a highstand between about 132,000 and 147,000 y B.P. Depositional facies encountered in cores consist of back reef, reef flat, reef crest, and shallow fore-reef zones, and many appear to have a storm-modified fabric analogous to the modern fringing reef. Eustatic changes in sea level resulted in 3 periods of marine submergence, and two periods of emergence in a meteoric vadose regime.

Diagenetic fabrics in times of marine submergence include micritization, sedimentation and lithification of extensive mud drapes, and precipitation of high-magnesian calcite, aragonite, and dolomite cements. Mixing zone fabrics include dissolution of aragonite and magnesian calcites. Dissolution of aragonite and subsequent precipitation of whisker calcite (“lublinite”) and other thin-bladed crystals of calcite occurred in the meteoric vadose environment. Thick-bladed to equant low-magnesian calcite filled pores saturated with meteoric water. In contrast to the subaerially exposed 125 Ka Falmouth Formation, no extensive caliche-like “caprock” is associated with the surface of submarine exposure, which is undergoing extensive biological erosion today, or is directly overlain by Holocene deposits.

Marine diagenetic fabrics dominate the rocks today, and a poor and incomplete record of eustatic changes is preserved.

Keywords

Dolomite Aragonite Micrite Dolomitization Peloids 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Folk, R. L., Chaftez, H. S., and Tiezzi, P. A., 1985, Bizarre forms of depositional and diagenetic calcite in hot-spring travertines, central Italy, in: N. Scheidermann and P. M. Harris, eds., Carbonate Cements, Soc. Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Spec. Pub. 36, p. 349–369.Google Scholar
  2. Friedman, G. M., 1985, The problem of submarine cement in classifying reefrock: An experience in frustration, in: N. Scheidermann and P. M. Harris, eds., Carbonate Cements, Soc. Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Spec. Pub. 36, p. 117–121.Google Scholar
  3. Harmon, R. S., Mitterer, R. M., Kriausakul, N., Land, L. S., Schwarcz, H. P., Garret, P., Larson, G. J., Vacher, H. L., andRowe, M., 1983, U-series and amino-acid racemization geochronology of Bermuda: Implications for eustatic sea-level fluctuation over the past 250,000 years: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 44, p. 41–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hubbard, D. K., Miller, A. I., andScaturo, D., 1990, Production and cycling of calcium carbonate in a shelf-edge reef system (St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands): Applications to the nature of reef systems in the fossil record: Jour. Sedimentary Petrology, v. 60, p. 335–360.Google Scholar
  5. Land, L. S., 1989, Dolomitization of the Hope Gate Formation, North Jamaica, by seawater: Reassessment of mixing-zone dolomite: S. Epstein 70th Birthday Symposium, California Inst. Tech., Abstracts with Program, p. 43–45.Google Scholar
  6. Land, L. S., andEpstein, S., 1970, Late Pleistocene diagenesis and dolomitization, North Jamaica: Sedimentology, v. 14, p. 187–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Land, L. S., Lund, H. J., andMcCullough, M. L., 1989, Dynamic circulation of interstitial seawater in a Jamaican fringing reef: Carbonates and Evaporites, v. 4, p. 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Land, L. S., andMoore, C. H., 1980, Lithification, micritization, and syndepositional diagenesis of biolithites on the Jamaican island slope: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 50, p. 357–370.Google Scholar
  9. Lund, H. J., 1989, Marine dolomite in a fore-reef hardground, Discovery Bay, Jamaica [Masters Thesis]: University of Texas, Austin, 98 p.Google Scholar
  10. Lundberg, 1990, U-series dating of carbonates by mass spectrometry [Ph.D. Thesis]: McMaster University.Google Scholar
  11. Macintyre, I. G., 1985, Submarine cements—The peloidal question, in: N. Scheidermann and P. M. Harris, eds., Carbonate Cements, Soc. Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Spec. Pub. 36, p. 109–116.Google Scholar
  12. McCullough, M. L., 1990, Diagenetic history and dynamic hydrology of a Jamaican fringing reef [Masters Thesis]: University of Texas, Austin, 144 p.Google Scholar
  13. McCullough, M. L., and Land, L. S., 1992, Dynamic hydrology of a Jamaican fringing reef: Marine Geology.Google Scholar
  14. Miller, J., 1986, Facies relationships and diagenesis in Waulsortian mudmounds from the Lower Carboniferous of Ireland and N. England, in: J. H. Schroeder and B. H. Purser, eds., Reef Diagenesis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p. 311–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mitchell, J. T., 1987, Submarine lithification of a Holocene reef hardground: Discovery Bay, Jamaica [Masters Thesis]: University of Texas, Austin, 198 p.Google Scholar
  16. Mitchell, J. T., Land, L. S., andMiser, D. E., 1987, Modern marine dolomite cement in a north Jamaican fringing reef: Geology, v. 15, p. 557–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Moore, W. S., andSomayajulu, B. L. K., 1974, Age determinations of fossil corals using 230Th/234Th and 230Th/227Th: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 79, p. 5065–5068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Phillips, S. E., andSelf, P. G., 1987, Morphology, crystallography and origin of needle-fibre calcite in Quaternary pedogenic calcretes of South Australia: Austr. Jour. Soil Res., v. 25, p. 429–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Stoops, G. J., 1976, On the nature of “lublinite” from Hollanta (Italy): American Mineralogist, v. 61, p. 172.Google Scholar
  20. Ward, W. C., 1975, Petrology and diagenesis of carbonate eolianites of northeastern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology, v. 2, p. 500–571.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. L. McCullough
    • 1
  • L. S. Land
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of TexasAustin

Personalised recommendations