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Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 83–106 | Cite as

Geochemical differences between subtropical (Ordovician), cool temperate (Recent and Pleistocene) and subpolar (Permian) carbonates, tasmania, australia

  • C. Prasada Rao
Article

Abstract

Subtropical (10°N) Ordovician carbonates are similar to modern warm-water ones and contain aChlorozoan Biota, diverse non-skeletal grains, abundant micrite, isopachous cements and early diagenetic dolomites and rare evaporites. Sr/Na ratios are around ≥ 3 as in modern warm-water carbonates. Covariance between Mn content and that of Sr and Na indicates stabilization of aragonite to calcite in a semi-closed diagenetic system. Covariance of δ18O and δ13C with Mn, Sr and Na of brachiopods and isopachous cements indicate Late Ordovician marine calcite values were around −5‰ ± 1.0 in δ18O and 1‰ ± 1.0 in δ13C. A small δ18O difference (2‰) between marine calcite and meteoric calcite indicates low latitude meteoric diagenesis. Sr/Mn ratios decrease within increasingly lighter δ13C due to dissolution of calcite in meteoric waters.

Modern and Pleistocene cool temperate (40 to 44°S) carbonates are composed mainly ofBryomol fauna with marine calcite cements and non-skeletal grains are rare. Sr, Na and Sr/Na ratios (∼1) indicate mainly calcitic mineralogy with some aragonite. Covariance between Mn content and that of Sr, Na and Sr/Na indicates marine diagenesis. The δ18O and δ13C field is characterized by heavy δ18O and moderate δ13C values and is distinctly different from the warm-water field. The δ18O and δ13C values are uniform throughout the range of Sr, Na, Mn and Sr/Mn ratios as they are unaffected by meteoric diagenesis.

Subpolar (80°S) Permian carbonates contain abundant glacial dropstones. Fauna is less diverse than in warm-water carbonates butEurydesma, brachiopods, bryozoa, pelecypods and crinoids is abundant. Marine to mixing-zone low Mg-calcite cements formed in water temperatures <3°C. Sr/Na ratios are low }1 due to calcitic mineralogy of fauna and low Mg-calcite cement. Covariance between Mn content and that of Sr and Na indicates open flow diagenesis. The δ18O and δ13C values of skeletal material are similar to those of warm Permian brachiopods and marine cements from other regions because the Tasmanian fauna either equilibrated with melt-water or melt-water diluted low salinity seawater (down to 28 ‰). The δ18O-δ13C field of whole rocks and cements falls in the mixing zone due to extensive melt-water influx. The covariance of δ18O and δ13C values with those of Sr, Na and Mn indicate a reduction of Sr and Na and an increase of Mn due to melt-water dilution. The covariance of Sr/Mn with δ13C reveals appreciable water/rock interaction with melt-waters.

Keywords

Calcite Ordovician Aragonite Micrite Temperate Carbonate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Prasada Rao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia

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