Ore-hydrocarbon resources and alkaline magmatism of Late Proterozoic-Early Cambrian in Iran: A genetic interpretation
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The geographical-temporal distribution of the sedimentary-and magmatic rocks in the interval of Late Proterozoic- Early Cambrian in Iran and NE-Arabian Platform with stress on the Hormoz Formation is briefly reviewed. The mineral resources and fuels, hosted in these rocks, i.e., rock salt and K-salt, magmatic- and sedimentary phosphates, iron, lead, zinc, gold, radioactive- and rare-earth elements, and hydrocarbons are genetically interpreted under the light of a proposed “Volcanogenic model” (Momenzadeh 1990). According to the model, extended alkaline magmatism in the area is the initial source for the minerals and fuels. The alkaline magma, rich in fumaroles with Na, K, Cl, P, Fe, Pb, Zn, Au, U, REE, H2S, CO2, CH4, and some other components, is inferred to have introduced these mineral-forming materials into the sedimentary (rift?) basin. The discharge of material from magma into the sedimentary basin takes place from the submarine volcanic vents and/or the exhalation foci. The basinal water becomes abnormally rich in the ore-forming ions, first formed around the emanation vents and foci and gradually in the whole basin. Because of saturation (not necessarily resulting from evaporation), Na-K and Mg salts will be precipitated near the emanation foci just at the bottom of the basin. The environmental parameters such as Eh, pH, T, depth, evaporation, water movements (e.g., currents, tides, upwelling, etc.) may provide different conditions for precipitation of Fe, Pb, Zn, Au, Ba, U, REE, P, and evaporites as sulfides, chlorides, oxides, sulfates, etc. The abnormal amounts of phosphorus, CH4, H2S, CO2, and some other components may be consumed as nutrients for bioagents and cause their populations to expand, the mortality of which may produce the potentiality for sedimentary phosphates, hydrocarbons precursors, coal, sulfides, etc.
Huge masses of exhalative Fe oxides with apatite, U, and REE may be precipitated in association with or close to the submarine volcanic vents with alkaline affinity or its extreme differentiation product, i.e., carbonative vents. According to this model, as salt piles, form around the exhalation foci, one can expect rough and uneven morphology of salt masses on the basin floor during sedimentation. The huge piles may make up the “inital core” for the later diapirs that may grow up during later tectonic events.
The Upper Proterozoic-Cambrian rocks and their enclosed mineral- and fuel resources are genetically evaluated under the light of the “Volcanogenic model”.
KeywordsApatite Cambrian NASH Rift Zone Massive Sulfide
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