Advertisement

Carbonates and Evaporites

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 74–82 | Cite as

Reservoirs resulting from facies-independent dolomitization: Case histories from the Trenton and Black River carbonate rocks of the Great Lakes area

  • Brian D. Keith
Articles

Abstract

Reservoirs in the Trenton Limestone and the Black River Group (Limestone) both Upper Ordovician) in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio formed a major oil province that increased rapidly in importance beginning in 1884. This province became America’s first giant oilfield and has yielded more than 600 MBO, including that produced from the giant Albion-Scipio Trend (120 MBO), which was discovered in 1956. Trenton and Black River carbonates have always excited exploration interest, but very little was known about the nature and distribution of their reservoirs. Recent research on the nature of reservoir development in these units indicates that they do not contain any depositional porosity in the Great Lakes area. Reservoirs are found only where there has been dolomitization or fracturing or some combination of the two.

Dolomitization of Trenton and Black River limestones does not conform to facies-related models, such as the sabkha model, but must be related either to fluid movement along fractures associated with tectonic features or to burial dolomitization by some process that is not well understood. The importance of these two general types of dolomitization models can be shown by a comparison of fields where there has been dolomitization and fluid movement along a linear fault (or fracture) zone, and the Lima-Indiana Trend in Ohio and Indiana, where there has been a regional pattern of burial dolomitization. The range of oil recovery of the former is 12,000 to 2500 barrels per acre, and that of the latter is only 1,000 to 540 barrels per acre.

Keywords

Dolomite Ordovician Dolomitization Petroleum Geologist Subaerial Exposure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bailey Geological Services, Ltd., and Cochrane, R. O., 1984, Evaluation of the conventional and potential oil and gas reserves of the Ordovician of Ontario: Ontario Geol. Survey Open-File Rept. 5498, 77 p.Google Scholar
  2. Bartlett, C. S., Jr., 1985, Trenton Limestone fracture reservoirs in Lee County, southwestern Virginia: Oil and Gas Jour., v. 83, No. 23, p. 164–168.Google Scholar
  3. Bartlett, C. S., Jr., in preparation, Trenton Limestone fracture reservoirs in Lee County, southwestern Virginia,in B. D. Keith, ed., Upper Ordovician rocks of eastern North America — deposition, diagenesis, and petroleum occurrence: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Studies in Gelogy.Google Scholar
  4. Budal, J. M., andWilson, J. L., 1986, Depositional patterns and diagenetic history of Trenton-Black River formations in Michigan Basin [abs.]: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull. v. 70, p. 1063.Google Scholar
  5. Buehner, J. H., 1971, Future oil and gas production of the Cincinnati Arch — north,in D. C. Bond and others, ed., Proceedings of symposium on future petroleum potential of NPC region 9 (Illinois Basin, Cincinnati Arch, and northern part of Mississippian Embayment): Illinois Geol. Survey Illinois Petroleum 99, p. 35–43.Google Scholar
  6. Burgess, R. J., 1960, Oil in Trenton synclines: Oil and Gas Jour., v 58, No. 33, p. 124–130.Google Scholar
  7. Carpenter, G. L., and Keller, S. J., 1984, Oil development and production in Indiana during 1983: Indiana Geol. Survey Mineral Economics Ser. 30, 48 p.Google Scholar
  8. Coogan, A. H., andParker, M. M., 1984, Six potential trapping plays in Ordovician Trenton Limestone, northwestern Ohio: Oil and Gas Jour., v. 82, No. 48, p. 121–126.Google Scholar
  9. Coogan, A. H., and Parker, M. M., in preparation, Six trap/reservoir producing configurations in the Trenton Limestone reservoir, northwestern Ohio,in B. D. Keith, ed., Upper Ordovician rocks of eastern North America — deposition, diagenesis, and petroleum occurrence: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology.Google Scholar
  10. Crews, G. A., 1985, Carbonate facies of the Kimmswick Limestone (Trenton/Galena) in southwestern Illinois — their relations as oil reservoirs and traps [M. S. thesis]: Rolla, Missouri Univ., 75 p.Google Scholar
  11. DeHaas, R. J., andJones, M. W., 1984, Cave levels of the Trenton and Black River Limestones in central southern Michigan [abs.]: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 68, p. 1918.Google Scholar
  12. DeHaas, R. J., 1986, Evidence for a post-Trenton pre-Utica unconformity in southern Michigan and Indiana [abs.]: Eastern Section Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Program with Abs., 15th Ann. Mtg. 1986, p. 20Google Scholar
  13. DeHaas, R. J., and Jones, M. W., in preparation, Cave levels of the Trenton and Black River Limestones in central southern Michigan,in B. D. Keith, ed., Upper Ordovician rocks of eastern North America — deposition, diagenesis, and petroleum occurrence: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology.Google Scholar
  14. Fara, D. R., andKeith, B. D., 1984, Depositional facies and diagenetic history of the Trenton Limestone in northern Indiana [abs.]: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 68, p. 1919.Google Scholar
  15. Fara, D. R., and Keith, B. D., in preparation, Depositional facies and diagenetic history of the Trenton Limestone in northern Indiana,in B. D. Keith, ed., Upper Ordovician rocks of eastern North America — deposition, diagenesis, and petroleum occurrence: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology.Google Scholar
  16. Gutstadt, A. M., 1958, Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy and oil and gas possibilities in Indiana: Indiana Geol. Survey Bull. 14, 103 p.Google Scholar
  17. Keith, B. D., 1985a, Facies, diagenesis, and the upper contact of the Trenton Limestone of northern Indiana,in Cercone, K. R. and Budai, J. M., eds., Ordovician and Silurian rocks of the Michigan Basin and its margins: Michigan Basin Geol. Soc. Spec. Paper4, p. 15–32.Google Scholar
  18. Keith, B. D., 1985b, Map of Indiana showing thickness, extent, and oil and gas fields of Trenton and Lexington Limestones: Indiana Geol. Survey Misc. Map 45.Google Scholar
  19. Keith, B. D., 1985c, Top of the Trenton Limestone in Indiana — subaerial unconformity or submarine discontiunity?: Soc. Econ. Paleontologists and Mineralogists Ann. Midyear Mtg. Abs., v. 2, p. 48Google Scholar
  20. Keith, B. D., 1986, Character and distribution of Trentonian and Blackriverian reservoirs in eastern North America — implications for reservoir quality and exploration [abs.]: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 70, p. 1068.Google Scholar
  21. Keith, B. D., in preparation, Major facies packages of the Upper Ordovician of eastern North America,in B. D. Keith, ed., Upper Ordovician rocks of eastern North America — deposition, diagenesis, and petroleum occurrence: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology.Google Scholar
  22. Landes, K. K., 1946, Porosity through dolomitization: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 30. p. 305–318.Google Scholar
  23. Michigan Geological Survey, 1983, Michigan’s oil and gas fields, 1981: Michigan Geol. Survey Ann. Statistical Summ. 39, 52 p.Google Scholar
  24. Orton, E., 1888, The Trenton Limestone as a source of oil and gas in Ohio: Ohio Geol. Survey Report, v. 6, p. 101–310.Google Scholar
  25. Phinney, A. J., 1891, The natural gas fields of Indiana: U.S. Geol. Survey Ann. Rept. 11, pt. 1, p. 579–742.Google Scholar
  26. Prouty, C. E., 1984, Trenton exploration and wrenching tectonics — Michigan Basin and environs [abs.]: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 68, p. 1927.Google Scholar
  27. Prouty, C. E., in preparation, Trenton exploration and wrenching tectonics — Michigan Basin and environs,in B. D. Keith, ed., Upper Ordovician rocks of eastern North America — deposition, diagenesis, and petroleum occurrence: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Studies in Gelogoy.Google Scholar
  28. Pryor, W. A., andSullivan, M. P., 1985, Enigmatic Granville holds potential: Northeast Oil Reporter, v. 5, No. 2, p. 21–25.Google Scholar
  29. Robinson, J. E., 1985, Development of gas-bearing reservoirs in the Trenton Limestone formation of New York: New York State Energy Research and Devel. Authority Rept. 85–18, 101 p.Google Scholar
  30. Rooney, L. F., 1966, Evidence of unconformity at top of Trenton Limestone in Indiana and adjacent states: Am. Assoc. Petrolum Geologists Bull., v. 50, p. 533–545.Google Scholar
  31. Sanford, B. V., 1961, Subsurface stratigraphy of Ordovician rocks in southwestern Ontario: Geol. Survey Canada Paper 60–26, 54 p.Google Scholar
  32. Shaver, R. H. and others, 1985, Midwestern basins and arches region,in O. E. Childs and others, eds., Correlation of stratigraphic units of North America: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists COSUNA Chart MBA.Google Scholar
  33. Stieglitz, R. D., 1975, Sparry white dolomite and porosity in Trenton Limestone (Middle Ordovician) of northwestern Ohio: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 59, p. 530–533.Google Scholar
  34. Sullivan, M. P., and Pryor, W. A., in preparation, The Granville pay zone — a shallow Upper Ordovician limestone reservoir in the Lexington Limestone of south-central Kentucky, in B. D. Keith, ed., Upper Ordovician rocks of eastern North America — deposition, diagenesis, and petroleum occurrence: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology.Google Scholar
  35. Taylor, T. R., andSibley, D. F., 1986, Petrographic and geochemical characteristics of dolomite types and the origin of ferroan dolomite in the Trenton Formation, Ordovician, Michigan Basin, U.S.A.: Sedimentology, v. 33, p. 61–86.Google Scholar
  36. Ver Wiebe, W. A., 1929, Unconformity at top of Trenton in Laim, Indiana, district: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 13, p. 688–689.Google Scholar
  37. Wickstrom, L. H., and Gray, J. D., in preparation, Geology of the Trenton Limestone in northwestern Ohio,in B. D. Keith, ed., Upper Ordovician rocks of eastern North America — deposition, diagenesis, and petroleum occurrence: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology.Google Scholar
  38. Wickstrom, L. H., Gray, J. D., andStieglitz, R. D., 1984, Geology of the Trenton Limestone (Upper Ordovician) of northwestern Ohio [abs.]: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull., v. 68, p. 1930–1931.Google Scholar
  39. Wilson, J. L., and Sengupta, A., 1985, The Trenton Formation in the Michigan Basin and environs: pertinent questions about its stratigraphy and diagenesis,in K. R. Cercone and J. M. Budai, eds., Ordovician and Silurian rocks of the Michigan Basin and its margins: Michigan Basin Geol. Soc. Spec. Paper 4, p. 1–14.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian D. Keith
    • 1
  1. 1.Indiana Geological SurveyBloomington

Personalised recommendations