Advertisement

European Journal of Psychology of Education

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 509–523 | Cite as

Changes in the relation between cognitive and metacognitive skills during the acquisition of expertise

  • Marcel VeenmanEmail author
  • Jan J. Elshout
Article

Abstract

This paper focuses on the transformation of general metacognitive skills of novices into domain-specific regulatory procedures of experts, and the relation of those skills to intelligence. Research has shown that the general metacognitive skills of novices, although partly correlated to intelligence, additionally contribute to learning outcome on top of intelligence. The metacognitive skills of experts appear to be domainspecific and unrelated to intelligence. Two experiments were conducted. The objective of the first experiment was to confirm and generalize these earlier results concerning the relation of intellectual ability, metacognitive skillfulness and learning of novices vs. advanced subjects. The objective of the second experiment was to investigate this relation under different conditions of task complexity. It was hypothesized that advanced subjects would regress to more novice-like behavior under very complex learning conditions (i.e., general metacognitive skills and intelligence would re-appear as combined predictors of learning outcome). On the other hand, low intelligent novices, irrespective of their metacognitive skillfulnes, were expected to fail on very complex problems. Results partly confirmed these hypotheses. Implications for the conditions under which metacognitive experiences should be implemented, are being discussed.

Key words

Expertise Intellectual ability Metacognitive skills 

Résumé

Cet article porte sur la transformation des capacités métacognitives générales des novices en des procédures de régulation propres à des domaines qui sont celles des experts, ainsi que sur les relations entre ces capacités et l’intelligence. La recherche a montré que les capacités métacognitives générales des novices, faiblement corrélées à l’intelligence, ajoutent leurs effets à ce dernier facteur dans la réussite aux apprentissages. Les capacités métacognitives des experts sont spécifiques à des domaines et indépendantes de l’intelligence. Deux recherches ont été conduites. L’objectif de la première était de confirmer et de généraliser les relations antérieurement constatées entre aptitude intellecturlle, capacité métacognitive et apprentissage, chez les novices et chez les experts. L’objectif de la deuxième recherche était d’étudier les mêmes relations dans des conditions variable de complexité de la tâche. L’hypothèse était que dans les conditions d’une tâche très complexe, les sujets plus experts reviennent à des comportements proches de ceux des novices (i.e., capacités métacognitives générales et intelligence réapparaîtraient, dans ces conditions, comme prédicteurs associés de la réussite de l’apprentissage). D’autre part, des novices de faible intelligence, devaient échouer face à des problèmes très complexes, indépendamment de leurs capacité métacognitives. Les résultats vont en partie dans le sens de ces hypothèses. Les implications concernant les conditions d’exploitation des capacités métacognitives sont discutées.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, J.R. (1990).Cognitive psychology and its implications (3rd ed.). New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  2. Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers, and students.Learning and Instruction, 7, 161–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borkowski, J.G., Teresa Estrada, M., Milstead, M., & Hale, C.A. (1989). General problem-solving skills: Relations between metacognition and strategic processing.Learning Disability Quarterly, 12, 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown, A.L. (1978). Knowing when, where, and how to remember: A problem of metacognition. In R. Glaser (Ed.),Advances in instructional psychology (vol. 1, pp. 77–165). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  5. Carroll, J.B. (1993).Human cognitive abilities. A survey of factor-analytic studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Davidson, J.E., Deuser, R., & Sternberg, R.J. (1994). The role of metacognition in problem solving. In J. Metcalfe & A.P. Shimamura (Eds.),Metacognition (pp. 207–226). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  7. Dominowski, R.L., & Bourne, L.E. (1994). History of research on thinking and problem solving. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.),Thinking and problem solving (pp. 1–35). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  8. Elshout, J.J. (1976).Karakteristieke moeilijkheden in het denken (Characteristic difficulties in thinking) (Doctoral dissertation). Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  9. Elshout, J.J. (1983). Een beginner is meer dan iemand die het nog niet kan (A novice is more than just someone who is unable to perform the task) In P. Drenth (Ed.),Psychologie in Nederland (pp. 177–184). Lisse, The Netherlands: Swets en Zeitlinger.Google Scholar
  10. Elshout, J.J. (1987). Problem solving and education. In E. de Corte, H. Lodewijks, R. Parmentier, & P. Span (Eds.),Learning and instruction (pp. 259–273). Oxford: Pergamon Books Ltd and Leuven: University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Elshout, J.J., Overbeek, H. van, Roe, R.a., & Vijn, P. (1979). Testing the hypothesis that RHO=0 in selected samples (case 1).Educational and Psychological Measurement, 39, 573–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Elshout, J.J., & Veenman, M.V.J. (1992). Relation between intellectual ability and working method as predictors of learning.Journal of Educational Research, 85, 134–143.Google Scholar
  13. Elshout, J.J. & Veenman, M.V.J., & Van Hell, J.G. (1993). Using the computer as a help tool during learning by doing.Computers & Education, 21, 115–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ericsson, K.A. & Simon, H.A. (1993).Protocol analysis. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  15. Flavell, J.H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L.B., Resnick (Ed.),The nature of intelligence (pp. 231–235). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  16. Flavell, J.H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring.American Psychologist, 34, 906–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Glaser, R. (1990). The reemergence of learning theory within instructional research.American Psychologist, 45, 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Glaser, R., & Chi, M.T.H. (1988). Overview. In M.T.H. Chi, R. Glaser, & M.J. Farr (Eds.),The nature of expertise (pp. xv-xxviii). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Guilford, J.P. (1965).Fundamental statistics in psychology and education. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  20. Gulliksen, H. (1961).Theory of mental tests. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Hunt, E. (1976). Varieties of cognitive power. In L.B. Resnick (Ed.),The nature of intelligence (pp. 237–259). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  22. Kinnunen, R., & Vauras, M. (1995). Comprehension monitoring and the level of comprehension in high- and low-achieving primary school children’s reading.Learning and Instruction, 5, 143–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lompscher, J. (1995). Learning strategies in 4th, 6th, and 8th grade students. In C. Aarnoutse, F. de Jong, H. Lodewijks, R.J. Simons, & D.v.d. Aalsvoort (Eds.),Abstracts of the 6th European Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction Conference (p. 527). Nijmegen, The Netherlands: University of Nijmegen.Google Scholar
  24. Mettes, C.T.C.W., & Pilot, A. (1980).Over het leren oplossen van natuurwetenschappelijke problemen (About learning to solve science problems) (Doctoral dissertation). Twente, The Netherlands: Twente University.Google Scholar
  25. Nisbett, R.E., & Wilson, T.D. (1977). Telling more than we know: Verbal reports on mental processes.Psychological Review, 84, 231–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nunnally, J.C. (1967).Psychometric theory, New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  27. Pedhazur, E.J. (1982).Multiple regression in behavioral research (2nd Ed.), New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  28. Pintrich, P.R., & De Groot, E.V. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance.Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Prins, F.J., Busato, V.V., Elshout, J.J., & Hamaker, C. (1998). A new contribution to the validation of the (meta)cognitive part of the Inventory Learning Styles (ILS).Pedagogische Studièn, 75, 73–93.Google Scholar
  30. Raaheim, K. (1988). Intelligence and task novelty. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.),Advances in the psychology of human intelligence (vol. 4, pp. 73–97). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Reder, L.M. (1996).Implicit memory and metacognition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  32. Schoenfeld, A.H. (1983). Beyond the purely cognitive.Cognitive Science, 7, 329–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Span, P. & Overtoom-Corsmit, R. (1986). Information processing by intellectually gifted pupils solving mathematical problems.Educational Studies in Mathematics, 17, 273–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sternberg, R.J. (1990).Metaphors of the mind: Conceptions of the nature of intelligence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Swanson, H.L. (1990). Influence of metacognitive knowledge and aptitude on problem solving.Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 306–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Veenman, M.V.J. (1993).Intellectual ability and metacognitive skill: Determinants of discovery learning in computerized learning environments. Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  37. Veenman, M.V.J. (1997, August).Changes in the relationship between cognitive and metacognitive skills during the acquisition of expertise. Paper presented at the 7th European Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, Athens, Greece.Google Scholar
  38. Veenman, M.V.J., Beishuizen, J.J., & Niewold, P. (1997). Intellectual ability and metacognitive skills during text studying. In S. Vosniadou, E. Matsagouras, K. Maridaki-Kassotaki, & S. Kotsanis (Eds.),Abstracts of the 7th European Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, (pp. 145–146). Athens: Gutenberg UPGoogle Scholar
  39. Veenman, M.V.J., & Elshout, J.J. (1991). Intellectual ability and working method as predictors of novice learning.Learning and Instruction, 1, 303–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Veenman, M.V.J., & Elshout, J.J. (1995). Differential effects of instructional support on learning in simulation environments.Instructional Science, 22, 363–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Veenman, M.V.J., Elshout, J.J., & Busato, V.V. (1994). Metacognitive mediation in learning with computer-based simulations.Computers in Human Behavior, 10, 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Veenman, M.V.J., Elshout, J.J., & Groen, M.G.M., (1993). Thinking aloud: Does it affect regulatory processes in learning.Tijdschrift voor Onderwijsresearch, 18, 322–330.Google Scholar
  43. Veenman, M.V.J., Elshout, J.J., & Hoeks, J.C.J. (1993). Determinants of learning in simulation environments across domains. In D. Towne, T. de Jong, & H. Spada (Eds.),Simulation-based experiential learning (pp. 235–249). Berlin: Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  44. Veenman, M.V.J., Elshout, J.J., & Meijer, J. (1997). The generality vs. domain-specificity of metacognitive skills in novice learning across domains.Learning and Instruction, 7, 187–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Verheij, J., Veenman, M.V.J. & Prins, F. (submitted).The validity and reliability of the Inventory Learning Styles.Google Scholar
  46. Zimmerman, B.J., & Martinez-Pons, M. (1990). Student differences in self-regulated learning: Relating grade, sex, and giftedness to self-efficacy and strategy use.Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 51–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Instituto Superior de Psicologia Aplicada, Lisbon, Portugal/ Springer Netherlands 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept. of Developmental and Educational PsychologyLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Dept. of PsychonomicsUniversity of AmsterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations