Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 64, Issue 2, pp 135–141 | Cite as

Effects of hyperoxia on biomarkers of oxidative stress in closed-circuit oxygen military divers

  • M. J. Alcaraz-GarcíaEmail author
  • M. D. Albaladejo
  • C. Acevedo
  • A. Olea
  • S. Zamora
  • P. Martínez
  • S. Parra


Oxygen toxicity is a problem in diving which can have fatal consequences in the water. When divers use closed-circuit oxygen rebreathing apparatus they are taking only oxygen 100% and this hyperoxic exposure increases the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in biological tissues. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effects of hyperoxia on biomarkers of oxidative stress in closed-circuit oxygen military divers. Fifteen professional divers of Spanish Navy Diving Center participated in a training program which consisted of one-hour immersion at seven metres of depth breathing oxygen 100% with closed-circuit oxygen rebreathing apparatus. The training went on two or three times per week for the first six weeks and once a week for the last six weeks. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), nitrates (NO3 ) and urinary concentrations of 15-isoprostane F2t were measured. The results show that TAS decreased significantly after 6 weeks (mean 1.38 versus 1.23 mmol/l), with a slight increase at the end (mean 1.31 mmol/l). GPx and F2-isoprostanes were significantly lower after 6 and 12 weeks and NO3 was significantly lower after 6 weeks and remained unchanged until the end. In summary, professional divers who use closed-circuit apparatus and therefore breathe oxygen 100%, do not suffer an important oxidative hyperoxia-induced stress, probably due an adaptive process after hyperoxia. The age and good physical form of the subjects studied could probably enhance the adaptive process to hyperoxia.

Key words

Reactive oxygen metabolites, (ROS) Total antioxidant status (TAS) Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) Hyperoxia Nitrate 

Efectos de la hiperoxia sobre biomarcadores de estrés oxidativo en buceadores en circuito cerrado


La toxicidad del O2 es un problema en el buceo que puede tener consecuencias fatales en el agua. Los buceadores que utilizan equipos de circuito cerrado respiran oxígeno al 100% y esta exposición hiperóxica aumenta la producción de especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS) en los tejidos biológicos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es evaluar el efecto, de la hiperoxia sobre biomarcadores de daño oxidativo en un grupo de buceadores profesionales. Quince buceadores profesionales del Centro de Buceo de la Armada Española participaron en un programa de entrenamiento de una hora de inmersión diaria a siete metros de profundidad respirando oxígeno puro con equipos de circuito cerrado. El programa tenía lugar dos o tres veces por semana durante las seis primeras semanas y una vez por semana durante las últimas seis semanas. Se midieron niveles séricos del estado antioxidante total (TAS), glutation peroxidasa (GPx), así como de nitratos (NO3 y la concentración urinaria del 15-isoprostano F2t. Los resultados muestran que TAS descendió significativamente (desde un valor medio 1,38 a 1,23 mmol/l), después de 6 semanas con un leve incremento al final (1,31 mmol/l). Los niveles de GPxy los isoprostanos fueron significativamente más bajos después de 6 y 12 semanas y el NO3 disminuyó después de 6 semanas, manteniéndose invariable hasta el final. En resumen, los buceadores profesionales que utilizan equipos de circuito cerrado y por tanto respiran oxígeno 100%, no sufren un importante daño oxidativo inducido por la hiperoxia, probablemente porque tenga lugar un proceso adaptativo, facilitado por la juventud y buena forma física de todos los sujetos estudiados.

Palabras clave

Especies reactivas de oxígeno (ROS) Estado antioxidante total (TAS) Glutation peroxidasa (GPx) Hiperoxia Nitrato 


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Copyright information

© Universidad de Navarra 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Alcaraz-García
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. D. Albaladejo
    • 1
  • C. Acevedo
    • 1
  • A. Olea
    • 2
  • S. Zamora
    • 3
  • P. Martínez
    • 1
  • S. Parra
    • 1
  1. 1.Servicio de Análisis ClínicosSección de Bioquímica del Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixica, Ctra. Madrid-Cartagena s/nMurciaEspaña
  2. 2.Unidad de Investigación Subacuática del Centro de Buceo de la Armada EspañolaEspaña
  3. 3.Departamento de Fisiología Animal de la Facultad de BiologíaUniversidad de MurciaEspaña

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