Advertisement

Applied Magnetic Resonance

, 25:585 | Cite as

Liquid-contents verification for explosives, other hazards, and contraband by magnetic resonance

  • S. Kumar
Article

Abstract

An increasingly important need today is to guard against terrorist attacks at key locations such as airports and public buildings. Liquid explosives can avoid detection at security checkpoints by being concealed as beverages or other benign liquids. Magnetic resonance (MR) offers a safe, noninvasive technology for probing and classifying the liquid contents inside sealed nonmetallic containers or packages. MR parameters such as relaxation times and signal amplitudes can be used to verify if the container actually has the liquid that is claimed. This verification, which can be done quickly, will allow for the detection of containers whose contents have been tampered with and possibly replaced or mixed with liquid explosives. The development of MR technology for the detection of liquid explosives has been funded by the Federal Aviation Administration. MR can also be potentially used for the detection of hazards such as chemical warfare agents and contraband such as dissolved narcotics.

Keywords

Relaxation Time Proton Density Conveyor Belt Magnetic Resonance Signal Chemical Warfare Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/995605.stmGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    http://www.nis.go.kr/eng/activity/terror02.htmlGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/5260/headpage.html. and listed links on this site.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/07/26/khalid.confession/Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    http://www.cnn.com/1999/US/12/17/border.arrest.03/Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Slichter C.P.: Principles of Nuclear Magnetism, 3rd edn., Berlin: Springer 1989.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Becker E.D.: High Resolution NMR. New York: Academic Press 1969.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Farrar T.C.: Pulse NMR Spectroscopy, p. 7. Chicago: Farragut Press 1989.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Canet D., Brondeau J., Elbayed K.: J. Magn. Reson.77, 483 (1988)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kumar S., McMichael W.C., Kim Y.-W., Sheldon A.G., Magnuson E.E., Ficke L., Chhoa T.K., Moeller C.R., Barrall G.A., Burnett L.J., Czipott P.V., Pence J.S., Skvoretz D.C. in: Security Systems and Nonlethal Technologies for Law Enforcement (Alexander J.B., Spencer D.D., Schmit S., Steele B.J., eds.), pp. 126–137. Bellingham, Wash.: SPIE — the International Society of Optical Engineering 1997 (Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 2934)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kim Y.-W., Kumar S., McMichael W.C., Magnuson E.E., Moeller C.R., Sheldon A.G., Chhoa T.K.: Glass Bottle Contents Verification System: Phase III, Fieldable Prototype, Final Report for Contract No. DTFA03-94-C-00038, Federal Aviation Administration, 1996; Kumar S., Kim Y.-W., McMichael W.C., Magnuson E.E., Moeller C.R., Sheldon A.G., Chhoa T.K.: Glass Bottle Contents Verification System: Task 11, Task Final Report for Contract No. DTFA03-94-C-00038, Federal Aviation Administration, 1997.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumar S., McMichael W.C., Magnuson E.E.: Level 2 NMR liquid analysis study: Final Report, Final Report to the Federal Aviation Administration, September 2000.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kumar S., Magnuson E.E., Newman D.E., Prado P.J., Lawton J. in: Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Defense and Law Enforcement II (Carapezza E.M., ed.), pp. 222–233. Bellingham, Wash: SPIE — the International Society for Optical Engineering 2003 (Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 5071)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kumar S., McMichael W.C., Magnuson E.E., Lee Y.K., Moeller C.R., Czipott P.V., Rayner T.J., Newmann D.E., Wroblewski D. in: Enabling Technologies for Law Enforcement and Security (Bramble S.K., Carapezza E.M., Rudin L.I., eds.), pp. 206–216. Bellingham, Wash: SPIE—the International Society for Optical Engineering 2001 (Proceedings of the SPIE, vol. 4232)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Quantum Magnetics, Inc.San DiegoUSA

Personalised recommendations