Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry

, Volume 65, Issue 1, pp 1–9 | Cite as

High fat diet-induced obesity modifies the methylation pattern of leptin promoter in rats

  • F. I. Milagro
  • J. Campión
  • D. F. García-Díaz
  • E. Goyenechea
  • L. Paternain
  • J. A. Martínez
Article

Abstract

Leptin is an adipokine involved in body weight and food intake regulation whose promoter region presents CpG islands that could be subject to dynamic methylation. This methylation process could be affected by environmental (e.g. diet) or endogenous (e.g., adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, hypoxia) factors, and could influence adipocyte leptin gene expression. The aim of this article was to study whether a high-energy diet may affect leptin gene promoter methylation in rats. A group of eleven male Wistar rats were assigned into two dietary groups, one fed on a control diet for 11 weeks and the other on a high-fat cafeteria diet. Rats fed a high-energy diet become overweight and hyperleptin emic as compared to the controls. DNA isolated from retroperitoneal adipocytes was treated with bisulfite and a distal portion of leptin promoter (from −694 to −372 bp) including 13 CpG sites was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The studied promoter portion was slightly more methylated in the cafeteria-fed animals, which was statistically significant (p<0.05) for one of the CpG sites (located at the position −443). In obese rats, such methy lation was associated to lower circulating leptin levels, suggesting that this position could be important in the regulation of leptin gene expression, probably by being a target sequence of different transcription factors. Our findings reveal, for the first time, that leptin methylation pattern can be influenced by diet-induced obesity, and suggest that epigenetic mechanisms could be involved in obesity by regulating the expression of important epiobesigenic genes.

Key words

Epigenetics DNA methylation Cafeteria diet Bisulfite Adipocyte differentiation Hypoxia 

La obesidad inducida por dieta alta en grasas modifica el patrón de metilación del promotor de la leptina en la rata

Resumen

La leptina es una adipoquina implicada en la regulación del peso corporal y la ingesta energética cuya región promotora presenta islas CpG que podrían ser metiladas dinámicamente. Este proceso de metilación podría verse afectado por factores ambientales, como la dieta, o endógenos, como la diferenciación adipocitaria, inflamación o hipoxia, y podría influir en la expresión de leptina por parte de los adipocitos. El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar si una dieta alta en grasa podría afectar a la metilación del promotor de la leptina en ratas. Un grupo de once ratas Wistar macho fue dividido en dos subgrupos, uno alimentado con dieta control durante 11 semanas y el otro con dieta alta en grasa (dieta de cafetería). Las ratas alimentadas con la dieta rica en grasa presentaron sobrepeso e hiperleptinemia. El ADN aislado de los adipocitos retroperitoneales fue tratado con bisulfito y una porción distal del promotor de la leptina (de la base-694 a la — 372), conteniendo 13 sitios CpG, fue amplificada por PCR y secuenciada. Esta región del promotor apareció ligeramente más metilada en los animales alimentados con dieta de cafetería, lo cuál fue especialmente significativo (p <0,05) para uno de los sitios CpG (en la posición-443). En las ratas obesas, la metilación se asoció a una disminución de los niveles de leptina circulante, lo que sugiere que esta posición podría ser importante en la regulación de la expresión génica de esta adipoquina, probablemente por ser una secuencia diana de diferentes factores de trnascripción. Nuestos resultados, por primera vez, ponen de manifiesto que el patrón de metilación del promotor de la leptina puede estar influido por la obesidad inducida por la dieta, y sugieren que los mecanismos epigenéticos podrían estar implicados en la reciente pandemia de obesidad mediante la regulación de la expresión de importantes genes epiobesigénicos.

Palabras clave

Epigenética Metilación del ADN Dieta de cafeteria Adipocitos 

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Copyright information

© Universidad de Navarra 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. I. Milagro
    • 1
  • J. Campión
    • 1
  • D. F. García-Díaz
    • 1
  • E. Goyenechea
    • 1
  • L. Paternain
    • 1
  • J. A. Martínez
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Physiology and ToxicologyUniversity of NavarraSpain

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