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A comparison of curricular practices in Chinese kindergartens: The influence of curriculum reform

  • Pan YuejuanEmail author
  • Liu Yan
Articles

Summary

China launched a top-down curriculum reform in kindergartens in the 1980s. In order to examine the influence of this reform, this study compared the similarities and differences in curricular practices in kindergartens with different sponsoring bodies in Shanxi province. Altogether, 26 principals and 95 teachers in 50 classrooms from 26 kindergartens participated in the study. Principals and teachers completed questionnaires and were interviewed and kindergartens were observed. Results indicated that kindergartens in Shanxi have made great progress in the arrangement of indoor space, arranging the schedule and allocating attention to individual needs. Kindergartens under local education bureaux and work units were significantly better than kindergartens under town governments in these aspects. But kindergartens with different sponsoring bodies still have not attained the reform objectives in terms of teacher-child interactions and the organization of curricular activities. There was a relation between resource availability and curricular practice and the influences of the macro culture and educational institutions on curricular practice are discussed.

Keywords

Kindergarten Curriculum Reform Curricular Practice Funding and Governance 

Résumé

La Chine a lancé une réforme de haut en bas du programme pour les maternelles dans les annés 1980, Visant à examiner l’impact de cette réforme, cette recherche a comparé des similitudes et différences sous l’aspect de la pratique du programme dans des maternelles sous la tutelle des institutions tutrices dans la province de Shanxi. En total, 26 directeurs et 95 enseignants des 50 classes dans 26 maternelles ont été considerés dans la recherche. Les directeurs et enseignants ont répondu une enquête écrite et ils ont participé dans une interview tant que les maternelles ont été observées. Le résultat de la recherche montre que les maternelles en Shanxi ont fait de grands progrès concernant la distribution de l’espace intérieur, le calendrier et l’attention aux besoins individuels des enfants. Les maternelles gérés par des bureaux d’éducation locale et des unités de travail sont supérieurs sensiblement que les maternelles gérés par les bourgs et communes concernant ces aspects. Mais les maternelles sous la tutelle des institutions tutrices différentes sont loin du but de la réforme aux égards de l’interaction avec les enfants et de l’organisation des activités en classe. Il y avait une relation entre les ressources disponibles et la pratique du programme, et les auteurs ont des discussions sur les influences de la macro-culture et les institutions éducationnelles sur la pratique du programme.

Resumen

A partir de los finales de los años ochenda del siglo XX, en China se ha iniciado la reforma de arriba abajo para los cursos de kindergarten. Este estudio realizó una comparación de diferencias y semejanzas de las prácticas escolares entre las guarderías infantiles de distintos sistemas en la provincia Shanxi con objeto de evaluar los efectos de dicha reforma. Se hizo la observación y estimación en 50 clases de 26 guarderías infantiles y un cuestionario para 26 directivos y 95 profesores. Los resultados mostraban que las clases objeto de la investigación habian tenido bastante avance en la construcción ambiental, el arreglo del horario y la atención a las demandas individuales de los ñinos, pero todavía existia distancia a la meta de la reforma en los aspectos como interacción entre profesores e infantes y organización de actividades escolares. Las guarderías infantiles administradas por autoridades educativas y unidades empresariales e institucionales mostraban mayores ventajas que las rurales en varios aspectos escolares y recursos adquisitivos. En el fin, los autores discuten los impactos de la macrocultura y la de la institución en la práctica y reforma escolar de las guarderías infantiles.

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Copyright information

© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Early Childhood Education School of EducationBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

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