Human T lymphotropic virus type-I and adult T-cell leukemia in Japan
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HTLV-I is the first retrovirus to be associated directly with human malignancy. In ATL-endemic areas, the rate of HTLV-I carriers is high. Both HTLV-I and ATL have been shown to be endemic in some regions of the world, especially in southwest Japan, the Caribbean islands, South Americas, and parts of Central Africa. Antibodies against HTLV-I have been found in over one million individuals, and more than 700 cases of ATL have been diagnosed each year in Japan alone. The cumulative incidence of ATL among HTLV-I carriers in Japan is estimated at 2.5% (3–5% in males, 1–2% in females). In endemic areas, HTLV-I Ab were found in the sera of 6 to 37 percent of healthy adults over 40 years of age. This clustering is thought to be due to the limited transmission of virus between socially isolated populations. The diagnostic criteria for HTLV-I associated ATL have been defined as follows. 1) Histologically and/or cytologically proven lymphoid malignancy with T cell antigens. 2) Abnormal T-lymphocytes present in the peripheral blood, except in the lymphoma type. 3) Serum specimens for all patients with ATL have HTLV-I Ab. 4) Demonstration of clonality of HTLV-I proviral DNA is a definite diagnosis of ATL. ATL shows diverse clinical features but can be divided into four subtypes: acute, chronic, smoldering, and lymphoma type. The pattern of HTLV-I transmission is through one of three different modes. Infected mothers can transmit the virus to newborns mainly via breast milk. The virus also can be transmitted from male to female by sexual intercourse, and through blood transfusion. Chemotherapy is not effective; the acute and lymphoma types have a poor prognosis. ATL is generally treated with curative intent using combination chemotherapy, although long-term success has been very limited. Unfortunately that advance did not translate into an improvement in the overall survival; the median remain 10 months. In contrast, smoldering ATL, or some cases of chronic ATL, may have a more protracted natural course, which may be compromised by aggressive chemotherapy. Alternative strategies for both acute and chronic forms are clearly needed. After infection of HTLV-I, there is a long latent period before onset of ATL. Analyses by PCR showed that clearly proliferation occurred in intermediate state or even carriers with high virus load. Such clonal proliferation might be preleukemic stage, which suggested that carriers with high virus load should be risk group to have ATL.
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