Spektrum der Augenheilkunde

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 210–220

Chemotherapeutische Nebenwirkungen im Augenbereich

Übersichtsarbeiten

Ophthalmic complications due to cytotoxic chemotherapy

Zusammenfassung

Problemstellung

Die ständig wachsende Liste an Chemotherapeutika veranlasste uns eine aktuelle Übersichtsarbeit, welche die Nebenwirkungen im Augenbereich darstellt, zu verfassen. Da das Sehvermögen eine Lebensqualität ist, die im Rahmen von Voruntersuchungen und eventuellen regelmäßigen Kontrollen erhalten werden kann, ist es für den Onkologen als auch für den Ophthalmologen wichtig, dass beide über die Augennebenwirkungen der geläufigen Chemotherapeutika Bescheid wissen. Eine Früherkennung und rechtzeitige Behandlung der Nebenwirkungen im Augenbereich kann oftmals den Sehverlust oder bleibende Folgeschäden verhindern.

Methoden und/oder Patienten

Es wurde eine Übersichtsarbeit verfasst, die alle Augennebenwirkungen der heute verwendeten Chemotherapeutika zusammenfasst. Die Literatursuche wurde im MEDLINE durchgeführt und die Übersichtsarbeit beinhaltet alle beschriebenen Augennebenwirkungen von 1966 bis August 2003. Die Chemotherapeutika wurden nach ihren verschiedenen Wirkungsmechanismen in folgende Gruppen eingeteilt: Alkylantien, Antimetabolite, Mitose Inhibitoren, Antibiotika und hormonelle Antagonisten. Bei jeder Substanz wird kurz die Verwendung und der Wirkmechanismus beschrieben, bevor auf die Augennebenwirkungen eingegangen wird.

Ergebnisse

Geringgradige Nebenwirkungen im Augenbereich kommen häufig bei niedrig dosierten Chemotherapien vor. Diese sind aber meist reversibel und verschwinden auch schnell wieder nach Beendigung der Therapie. Hochdosierte Chemotherapien, starke Kombinationstherapien und intraarterielle Verabreichung mancher Substanzen kann hingegen irreversible Schäden zur Folge haben. Bei der rechtzeitigen Erkennung solcher Nebenwirkungen muss eine Dosisreduzierung oder sogar Therapieunterbrechung in Betracht gezogen werden, um den Sehverlust zu verhindern.

Schlussfolgerungen

Onkologen und Ophthalmologen sollten sich über die Augennebenwirkungen von Chemotherapien bewusst sein. Durch eine ophthalmologische Voruntersuchung, vor Beginn der Chemotherapie, können gefährdete Patienten ermittelt und zu Kontrolluntersuchungen wiederbestellt werden. Bei manchen Chemotherapieschemen sind laufende Kontrolluntersuchungen ohnehin zu empfehlen. Bei Auftreten von gravierenden Augennebenwirkungen soll auf jeden Fall an eine Dosisreduzierung, oder sogar an eine Therapieunterbrechung gedacht werden, da es bei der Tumorbekämpfung auch zum Sehverlust kommen kann.

Summary

Background

The constantly growing list of cytotoxic chemotherapeutics affords a new survey of ophthalmic complications, which are often underestimated. Vision is a quality of life, which needs to be taken care of, especially if loss of vision can be prevented. The broad spectrum of ophthalmic complications, induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy, includes reversible and irreversible, acute and chronic disorders.

Methods

A review of the literature reporting ophthalmic complications of currently used cytotoxic chemotherapeutics in oncology was conducted. Literature was searched in Medline from 1995 until August 2003. Further literature was then found in the references of the pre-selected literature.

Results

Ophthalmic complications of low-grade, induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy, are very common and reversible after cessation of anticancer therapy. Some major ocular toxicities may even afford a dose reduction or discontinuation of cytotoxic chemotherapy, in order to impede loss of vision.

Conclusion

Oncologists and ophthalmologists must be aware of potential ophthalmic complications during cytotoxic chemotherapy. Ocular toxicities can be treated or even prevented, if detected on time, which is why immediate consultation of an ophthalmologist seems to be necessary, as soon as symptoms are recognized. An ophthalmic baseline examination, prior to anticancer treatment, may also lead to a reduction of ocular side effects.

Schlüsselwörter

Übersichtsarbeit Augen Nebenwirkung Zytostatika 

Key words

Review ocular toxicity cytotoxic chemotherapy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Jonson DW, Cagnoni PJ, Schossau TM, et al (1999) Optic disc and retinal microvasculopathy after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopetic progenitor cell support. Bone Marrow Transplant 24: 785–792Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fraunfelder FT, Meyer SM (1983) Ocular toxicity of antineoplastic agents. Ophthalmology 90: 1–3PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Caraceni A, Martini C, Spatti G, Thomas A, Onofrj M (1997) Recovering optic neuritis during systemic cisplatin and carboplatin chemotherapy. Acta Neurol Scand 96: 260–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Becher R, Schutt P, Oleska R (1980) Peripheral neuropathy and ophthalmologic toxicity after treatment with cis-dichlorodiamminoplatinum. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 96: 219–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Berman IJ, Mann MP (1980) Scizures and transient cortical blindness associated with cisplatin therapy in a thirty year old man. Cancer 45: 764–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bonadonna G, Brusamolino E, Valagussa P (1976) Combination chemotherapy as an adjuvant treatment in operable breast cancer. N Engl J Med 294: 405–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Caruso R, Wilding G, Ballintine E, Ozols R (1985) Cisplatin retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 26: 34Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cohen RJ, Cuneo RA, Crucigar MP (1983) Transient left homonymous hemianopsia and encephalopathy following treatment of testicular carcinoma with cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin. J Clin Oncol 1: 392–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crispino S, Pissocaro G, Solero CL (1984) Transient left homonymous during treatment of testicular carcinoma with cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin. Chemoterapia 3: 337–339Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dimond SB, Rudolph SH, Lubicz SS (1982) Cerebral blindness in association with cisplatin chemotherapy for advanced carcinoma of the fallopian tube. Obstet Gynecol 59: 845–865Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ostrow S, Hahn D, Wiemick PH (1978) Ophthalmologic toxicity after cis-dichlorodiamminoplatinum therapy. Cancer Treat Rep 62: 1591–1594PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pippitt CH, Muss HB, Homesley HD (1981) Cisplatin associated cortical blindness. Gynecol Oncol 12: 253–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Walsh TJ, Clark AW, Parhad IM (1982) Neurotoxic effects of cisplatin therapy. Arch Neurol 39: 719–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wilding G, Caruso R, Lawrence TS, et al (1985) Retinal toxicity after high-dose cisplatin therapy. J Clin Oncol 3: 1683–1689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Katz BJ, Ward JH, Digre KB, Creel DJ, Mamalis N (2003) Persitent severe visual and electroretinographic abnormalities after intravenous cisplatin therapy. J Neuroophthalmol 23: 132–135PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lauer AK, Wobig JL, Shults WT, Neuwelt EA, Wilson MW (1999) Severe ocular and orbital toxicity after intracarotid etoposide phosphate and carboplatin therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 127: 230–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Margo CE, Murtagh FR (1993) Ocular and orbital toxicity after intracarotid ciaplatin therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 116: 508–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wu HM, Lee AG. Lehane DE, et al (1997) Ocular and orbital complications of intra-arterial cisplatin. J Neuroophthalmol 17: 195–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Millay RH, Klein ML, Shults WT, et al (1986) Maculopathy associated with combination chemotherapy and osmotic opening of the blood-brain barrier. Am J Ophthalmol 102: 626–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stewart DJ, Wallace S, Feun L (1982) A phase I study of intracarotid artery infusion of cis-dichlorodiamminoplatinum (II) in patients with recurrent malignant intra-cerebral tumors. Cancer Res 42: 2059–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Urba S, Forastiere AA (1988) Retrobulbar neuritis in a patent treated with intraarterial cisplatin for head and neck cancer. Cancer 62: 2094–2097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miller DF, Bay JW, Ledermann RJ, et al (1985) Ocular and orbital toxicity following intracarotid injection of BCNU (carmustine) and cisplatin for malignant gliomas. Ophthalmology 92: 402–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Prim MP, de Diego JI, de Sarria MJ, Gavilan J (2001) Vestibular and oculomotor changes in subjects treated with cisplatin. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 52: 367–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rankin EM, Pitts JE (1993) Ophthalmic toxicity during carboplatin therapy. Ann Oncol 4: 337–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    O’Brien MER, Tonge K, Blake P, Moskovic E, Wittshaw E (1992) Cortical blindness associated with high dose carboplatin. Lancet 339: 558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schmid KE, Kornek GV, Schuell B, et al (2003) Advanced gastric cancer with oxaliplatin plus raltitrexed. Onkologie 26: 255–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wilson RH, Lehky T, Thomas RR, Quinn MG, Floeter MK, Grem JL (2002) Acute oxaliplatin-induced peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. J Clin Oncol 20: 1767–1774PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sullivan RD (1951) The treatment of human cancer with intraarterial nitrogen mustard. Cancer 6: 121–131Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Anderson B, Anderson B (1960) Necrotizing uveitis incident to perfusion of intracranial malignacies with nitrogen mustard and related compounds. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc 58: 95–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Al-Tweigeri T, Nabholtz JM, Mackey JR (1996) Ocular toxicity and cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 78: 1359–1373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kende G, Sirkin SR, Thomas PRM (1979) Blurring of vision: a previously undescribed complication of cyclophosphamide therapy. Cancer 44: 69–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Jack MK, Hicks JD (1981) Ocular complications of high dose chemoradiotherapy and marrow transplantation. Ann Ophthalmol 13: 709–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Stevens A, Spooner D (2001) Lacrimal duct stenosis and other ocular toxicity associated with adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil combination chemotherapy for early stage breast cancer. Clin Oncol 13: 438–440Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lee V, Bentley CR, Olver JM (1998) Sclerosing canaliculitis after 5-fluorouracil breast cancer chemotherapy. Eye 12: 343–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Choonara IA, Overend M, Balley CC (1987) Blurring of vision due to ifosfamide. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 20: 349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Greenberg HS, Ensiminger WD, Chandler WF (1984) Intra-arterial BCNU chemotherapy for treatment of malignant gliomas of the central nervous system. J Neurosurg 61: 423–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Grimson BS, Maheley MS, Dubey HD (1981) Ophthalmic and central nervous systm complications following intra-carotid BCNU. J Clin Neuro-Opthalmol 1: 261–264Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shingelton BJ, Bienfang DC, Albert DM (1982) Ocular toxicity associated with high dose carmustine. Arch Ophthalmol 100: 1766–1772Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rubin P, Hulette C, Khawly JA, et al (1996) Ocular toxicity following high dose chemotherapy and autologous transplant. Bone Marrow Transplant 18: 253–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Walsh TJ, Clark AW, Parhad IM, et al (1982) Neurotoxic affects of cisplatin therapy. Arch Neurol 3: 719–720Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang MY, Arnold AC, Vinters HV, Glasgow BJ (2000) Bilateral blindness and lumbosacral myelopathy associated with high-dose carmustine and cisplatin therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 130: 367–368PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Percy DH, Danylchuk KD (1977) Experimental retinal dysplasia due to cytosine arabinoside. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 16: 353–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hopen G, Mondino BJ, Johnson BL (1981) Corneal toxicity with systemic cytarabine. Am J Ophthalmol 91: 500–504PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ritch PS, Hansen RM, Heuer DK (1983) Ocular toxicity from high dose cytosine arabinoside. Cancer 51: 430–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Vogler WR, Winton EF, Heffner LT, et al (1990) Ophthalmological and other toxicities related to cytosine arabinoside and total body radiation as preparative regimen for bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant 6: 405–409PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Maargileth DA, Poplack DG, Tizzo PA (1977) Blindness during remission in two patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a possible complication of multimodality therapy. Cancer 39: 58–61Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lass JH, Lazarus HM, Reed MD, Herzig RH (1982) Topical corticosteroid therapy for corneal toxicity from systemically administered cytarabine. Am J Ophthalmol 94: 617–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stentoft J (1990) The toxicity of cytarabine. Drug Saf 5: 7–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Itoh M, Aoyama T, Yamamura Y, et al (1999) Effects of the rational use of corticosteroids eye drops for the prevention of ocular toxicity in high-dose cytosine arabinoside therapy. Yakugaku Zasshi 119: 229–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Jansman FG, Sleijfer DT, de Graaf JC, Coenen JL, Brouwers JR (2001) Management of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Drug Saf 24: 353–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Santini J, Milano G, Thyss A, et al (1989) 5-FU therapeutic drug monitoring with dose adjustment leads to an improved therapeutic index in head and neck cancer. Br J Cancer 59: 287–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gamelin E, Boisdron-Celle M, Delva R, et al (1998) Long-term weekly treatment of colorectal metastatic cancer with fluorourocil and leucovorin: results of a multicentric prospective trial for fluorouracil dosage optimization by pharmacokinetic monitoring in 152 patients. J Clin Oncol 16: 1470–1478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fety R, Rolland F, Barberi-Heyob M, et al (1998) Clinical impact of pharmacokinetically-guided dose adaption of 5-fluorouracil: results from a multicentric randomized trial in patients with locally advanced head and neck carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res 4: 2039–2045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stern WH, Guerin CJ, Erickson PA, Lewis GP, Anderson DH, Fisher SK (1983) Ocular toxicity of fluorouracil after vitrectomy. Am J Ophthalmol 96: 43–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Shapiro MS, Thoft RA, Friend JA, Parrish RK, Gressel MG (1985) 5-Fluorouracil toxicity to the ocular surface epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 26: 580–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Christophidis N, Vadja FJE, Lucas I, Drummer O, Moon WJ, Louis WJ (1977) Excessive lacrimation associated with detectable concentrations of 5FU in tears and plasma. Proc Aust Soc Clin Exp Pharmacol 23: 56Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Brink HM, Beex LV (1995) Punctal and canalicular stenosis associated with systemic fluorouracil therapy. Doc Ophthalmol 90: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Prasad S, Kamath GG, Philips RP (2000) Lacrimal canalicular stenosis associated with systemic 5-fluorouracil therapy. Acta Ophthalmol Scand 78: 110–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bixenman WW, Nicholls JVV, Warwick OH (1968) Oculomotor disturbances associated with 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Am J Ophthalmol 83: 604–608Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sato Y, Morita M, Takahashi H-0 (1970) Combined surgery, radiotherapy and regional chemotherapy in carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses. Cancer 25: 571–579PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Loprinzi CL, Wender DB, Veeder MH, et al (1994) Inhibition of 5-fluorouracil-induced ocular irritation by ocular ice packs. Cancer 74: 945–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Khaw PT, Sherwood MB, Mackay SLD (1992) Five-minute treatments with fluorouracil, floxuridine, and mitomycin have long-term effects on human Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts. Arch Ophthalmol 110: 1150–1154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Binder S, Riss B, Skorpik Ch, Kulnig W (1983) Inhibition of experimental intraocular proliferation with intravitreal 5-fluouracil. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 221: 126–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Blumenkranz M, Ophir A, Clafin AJ, Hajek AS (1982) Fluoruracil for the treatment of massive periretinal proliferation. Am J Ophthalmol 94: 458PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Perkins SL, Gallemore RP, Yang CH, Guo H, Ashton P, Jaffe GJ (2000) Pharmacokinetics of the fluocinolone/5-fluorouracil codrug in the gas-filled eye. Retina 20: 514–519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Berger AS, Cheng CK, Person PA, et al (1996) Intravitreal sustained release corticosteroid-5-fluorouracil conjugate in the treatment of experimental proliferative vitroretinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 37: 2318–2325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yang CS, Khawly JA, Hainsworth DP, et al (1998) An intravitreal sustained-release triamcinolone and 5-fluorouracil codrug in the treatment of experimental proliferative vitroretinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 116: 69–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Ophir A (1983) Prevention of experimental massive peri-retinal proliferation by 5-fluorouracil. Metab Pediatr Syst Ophthalmol 7: 109–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kulnig W, Binder S, Riss B, Skorpik C (1984) Inhibition of experimental intraocular proliferation with intravitreous 5-fluoracil. A transmission electron-microscopic study in rabbits. Ophthalmologica 188: 248–258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lama PJ, Fechtner RD (2003) Antifibrotics and wound healing in glaucoma surgery. Surv Ophthalmol 48: 314–346PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Velikay M, Stolba U, Binder S, Wedrich A (1989) 5-Fluorouracil versus Prednisolon bei fistulierender Glaukomoperation. Spektrum Augenheilkd 3: 125–127Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gressel MG, Parrish II RK, Folberg R (1984) 5-fluorouracil and glaucoma filtering surgery: I. An animal model. Ophthalmology 91: 378–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Herschler J, Clafin AJ, Fiorentino G (1980) The effect of aqueous humor on the growth of subconjunctival fibroblasts in tissue culture and its implications for glaucoma surgery. Am J Ophthalmol 89: 245–249PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dooley M, Goa KL (1999) Capecitabine. Drugs 58: 69–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Blum JL (1999) Xeloda in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Oncology 57 (Suppl 1): 16–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Van Custem E, Peeters M, Verslype C, Filez L, Haustermans K, Jansens J (1999) The medical treatment of colorectal cancer: actual status and new developments. Hepatogastroenterology 46: 709–716Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Waikhom B, Fraunfelder FT, Henner WT (2000) Severe ocular irritation and corneal deposits associated with capecitabine use. N Engl J Med 343: 740–741PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Doroshow JH, Locker GY, Gasterland DE, et al (1981) Ocular irritation from high dose methotrexate therapy: pharmacokinetics of drug in the tear film. Cancer 48: 2158–2162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Fishman ML, Bean SC, Cogan DG (1976) Optic atrophy following prophylatic chemotherapy and cranial radiation for acute lymphocytic leukemia. Am J Ophthalmol 82: 571–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Milly RH, Klein ML, Shults WT (1986) Maculopathy associated with combination chemotherapy and osmotic opening of the blood brain barrier. Am J Ophthalmol 102: 626–632Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Chun JG, Leyland-Jones BR, Caryk SM, Hoth DF (1986) Central nervous system toxicity of fludarabine phosphate. Cancer Treat Rep 70: 1225–1228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kraut EH, Bouroncle BA, Grever MR (1989) Pentostatin in the treatment of advanced hairy cell leukemia. J Clin Oncol 7: 168–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    O’Dwyer PJ, Wagner B, Lleyland-Jones B (1988) Pentostatin for lymphoid malignancies. Ann Intern Med 108: 733–743PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Grever MR, Slaw MFE, Jacob WF (1981) The biochemical and clinical consequences of 2-deoxycoformycin in refractory lymphoproliferative malignancy. Blood 57: 406–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Major PP, Agarwal RP, Kufe DW (1981) Clinical pharmacology of deoxycoformycin. Blood 58: 91–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kefford RF, Fox RM (1982) Deoxycoformycin-induced response in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: deoxycoformycin toxicity in non-replicating lymphocytes. Br J Haematol 50: 627–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Spiers ASD, Ruckdeschel JC, Horton J (1984) Effectiveness of pentostatin in refractory lymphoid neoplasm. Scand J Haematol 32: 130–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Damascelli B, Cantu G, Mattavelli F, et al (2001) Intraarterial chemotherapy with polyoxyethylated castor oil free paclitaxel, incorporated in albumin nanoparticles (ABI-007): Phase II study of patients with squamosous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and anal canal: preliminary evidence of clinical activity. Cancer 92: 2592–2602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Capri G, Munzone E, Tarenzi E, et al (1994) Optic nerve disturbances: a new form of paclitaxel neurotoxicity. J Natl Cancer Inst 86: 1099–1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Scideman AD, Barrett S, Canezo S (1994) Photopsia during 3 hours paclitaxel administration at doses > 250 mg/m2. J Clin Oncol 12: 1741–1742Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Capri G, Munzone E, Tarenzi E, Fulfaro F, Gianni L (1994) Optic nerve disturbances: new form of paclitaxel neurotoxicity. J Natl Cancer Inst 86: 1099–1101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Oura S, Sakurai T, Yoshimura G, Tamaki T, Umemura T, Kokawa Y (1998) Recurrent squamous-cell lung cancer treated with bronchialarterial infusion of docetaxel. Case report. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 25: 2109–2113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Maeda Y, Nishida M, Takao T, et al (1999) A case of multiple liver metastases from breast cancer successfully treated with intra-arterial administration of docetaxel. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 26: 1051–1054Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Esmaeli B, Burnstine MA, Ahmadi MA, Prieto VG (2003) Docetaxcl-induced histologic changes in the lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 19: 305–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Esmaeli B, Hidaji L, Adinin RB, et al (2003) Blockage of the lacrimal drainage apparatus as a side effect of docetaxel therapy. Cancer 98: 504–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Albert DM, Wong VG, Henderson ES (1976) Ocular complications of vincristine therapy. Arch Ophthalmol 78: 709–713Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sandler SG, Tobin W, Henderson ES (1969) Vincristine induced neuropathy. A clinical study of fifty leukemic patients. Neurology 19: 367–374Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hansson HA (1972) Retinal changes induced by treatment with vincristine and vinblastine. Doc Ophthalmol 31: 65–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sanderson PA, Kuwabara T, Cogan DG (1976) Optic neuropathy presumably caused by vincristine therapy. Am J Ophthalmol 81: 146–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Norton SW, Stockman JA (1979) Unilateral optic neuropathy following vincristine chemotherapy. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 16: 190–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Alexander P (1980) Radiation imitative chemicals. Sci Am 202: 99–108Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Shurin SB, Rekate HL, Annable W (1982) Optic atrophy induced by vincristine. Pediatrics 70: 288–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ripps H, Carr RE, Siegel IM (1984) Functional abnormalities in vincristine-induced night blindness. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 25: 787–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Awidi AS (1980) Blindness and vincristine. Ann Intern Med 93: 781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Byrd RL, Rohrbaugh TM, Raney RB Jr (1981) Transient cortical blindness secondary to vincristine therapy in childhood malignancies. Cancer 47: 37–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schacter L (1996) Etoposide phosphate: what, why, where and how? Semin Oncol 23: 1–7PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Broadway DC, Grierson I, O’ Brien C, Hitchings RA (1994) Adverse effects of topical antiglaucoma medication. II. The outcome of filtration surgery. Arch Ophthalmol 112: 1446–1454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Vizel M, Oster MW (1982) Ocular side effects of cancer chemotherapy. Cancer 49: 1999–2002PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Voest EE, Neijt JP, Keunen JE, Dekker AW, von Asbeck BS (1993) Phase I study using desferrioxamine and iron sorbitol citrate in an attempt to modulate the iron status of tumor cells to enhance doxorubicin activity. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 31: 357–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Rahl AHS, Hungerford JL, Ahmed AI (1988) Ocular toxicity of desferrioxamine: light microscopic histochemical and ultrastructural findings. Br J Ophthalmol 70: 373–381Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Wiedemann P, Hilgers R, Bauer P, Heimann K (1998) Adjunctive daunorubicin in the treatment of proliferative vitreoretinopathy: results of a multicenter clinical trail. Am J Ophthalmol 26: 550–559Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Wiedemann P (1999) Drug treatment of ocular neovascularization and proliferation. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 237: 445–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Rubinfeld RS, Pfister RR, Stein RM (1992) Serious complication of topical mitomycin C. Ophthalmology 99: 1647–1654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Mattox C (1995) Glaucoma filtration surgery and antimetabolites. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 26: 473–480PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Azuara-Blanco A, Katz LJ (1998) Dysfunctional filtering blebs. Surv Ophthalmol 43: 93–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Mattox C (1995) Management of the leaking bleb. J Glaucoma 4: 370–374Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Shields MB, Scroggs MW, Sloop CM, Simmons RB (1993) Clinical and histopathologic observations concerning hypotony after trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C. Am J Ophthalmol 116: 673–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hu CY, Matuso H, Tomita G, et al (2003) Clinical characteristics and leakage of functioning blebs after trabeculectomy with mitomycin-C in primary glaucoma patients. Ophthalmology 110: 345–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Greenfield DS, Liebmann JM, Jee J, Ritch R (1998) Late-onset bleb leaks after glaucoma filtering surgery. Arch Ophthalmol 116: 443–447PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Parrish R, Minckler D (1996) “Late endophthalmitis”-filtering surgery time bomb? Ophthalmology 103: 1167–1168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Nuyts RMMA, Felten PC, Pels E, et al (1994) Histopathologic effects of mitomycin C after trabeculectomy in human glaucomatous eyes with persistent hypotony. Am J Ophthalmol 118: 225–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Mochizuki K, Jikihara S, Ando Y, et al (1997) Incidence of delayed onset infection after trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C or 5-fluorouracil treatment. Br J Ophthalmol 81: 877–883PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Beckers HJM, Kinders KC, Webers CAB (2003) Five-year results of trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 241: 106–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Kobayashi H, Kobayashi K, Okinami S (2003) A comparison of the intraocular pressure-lowering effect and safety of viscocanalostomy and trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in bilateral open-angle glaucoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 241: 359–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Palmer SS (1991) Mitomycin as adjunct chemotherapy with trabeculectomy. Ophthalmology 98: 317–321PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kitazawa Y, Kawase K, Matsushita H, Minobe M (1991) Trabeculectomy with mitomycin. A comparative study with fluorouracil. Arch Ophthalmol 109: 1693–1698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sigh K, Mehta K, Shaikh NM, et al (2000) Trabeculectomy with intraoperative mitomycin C versus 5-fluorouracil. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Ophthalmology 107: 2305–2309Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Nayfield SG, Karp JE, Lord LG, et al (1991) Potential role of tamoxifen in prevention of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 83: 1450–1459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Conley B, O’Shaughessy J, Prindiville S, et al (2000) Pilot trial of the safety, tolerability, and retinoid levels of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide in combination with tamoxifen in patients at high risk for developing invasive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 18: 275–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kalse-Kupfer Ml, Lippman ME (1978) Tamoxifen retinopathy. Cancer Treat Rep 62: 315–320Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kalse-Kupfer MI, Kupfer C, Rodrigues MM (1981) Tamoxifen retinopathy: a clinicopathologic report. Ophthalmology 88: 89–93Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    McKeown CA, Swartz M, Blom J (1981) Tamoxifen retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 65: 177–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Sommer S, Badet JC, Zaoui M, Naoun-Hubert I, Rozot P (2000) Birdshot chorioretinopathy associated with tamoxifen retinal toxicity. J Fr Ophthalmol 23: 494–497Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Gorin MB, Day R, Costantino JP, et al (1998) Long-term tamoxifen citrate use and potential ocular toxicity. Am J Ophthalmol 125: 493–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ah-Song R, Sasco AJ (1997) Tamoxifen and ocular toxicity. Cancer Detect Prev 21: 522–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Tang R, Shields J, Schiffman J, et al (1997) Retinal changes associated with tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer. Eye 11: 295–297PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Pavlidis NA, Petris C, Briassoulis E, et al (1992) Clear evidence that long term low dose tamoxifen treatment can induce ocular toxicity. Cancer 69: 2961–2964PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ashford AR, Donev I, Tlwarl RP (1988) Reversible ocular toxicity related to tamoxifen therapy. Cancer 61: 33–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Lazzaroni F, Scorolli L, Pizzoleo CF, et al (1998) Tamoxifen retinopathy: does it really exist?. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 236: 669–673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Yanyali AC, Freund KB, Sorenson JA, Slakter JS, Wheatley HM (2001) Tamoxifen retinopathy in a male patient. Am J Ophthalmol 131: 386–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bernardo G, Redaelli C, Plastina M, et al (1994) Long term adjuvant therapy with tamoxifen: an evaluation of the ocular toxicity. Proc Annu Meet Am Soc Clin Oncol 13: A225Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Paganini-Hill A, Clark LJ (2000) Eye problems in breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen. Breast Cancer Res Treat 60: 167–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Rubinstein RA, Yanoff M, Albert DM (1968) Thrombocytopenia, anemia, and retinal hemorrhage. Am J Ophthalmol 65: 435–439Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ophthalmology, Rudolf Foundation ClinicThe Ludwig Boltzmann Institute of Retinology and Biomicroscopic LasersurgeryViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations